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Ribosomal protein S6 is phosphorylated in response to mitogens by activation of one or more protein kinase cascades. Phosphorylation of S6 in vivo is catalyzed by (at least) two distinct mitogen-activated S6 kinase families distinguishable by size, the 70 kDa and 90 kDa S6 kinases. Both S6 kinases are activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation. Members of each family have been cloned. The 90 kDa S6 kinases are activated more rapidly than the 70 kDa S6 kinase, and may have other intracellular targets. The 70 kDa S6 kinase is relatively specific for 40 S ribosomal subunits. No kinase capable of activating the 70 kDa S6 kinase has been identified. Members of the 90 kDa S6 kinases are activated in vitro by 42 kDa and 44 kDa MAP kinases, which are in turn activated by mitogen-dependent activators. The pathways for mitogen-stimulated S6 phosphorylation are discussed.  相似文献
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MDM2--master regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein   总被引:35,自引:0,他引:35  
Momand J  Wu HH  Dasgupta G 《Gene》2000,242(1-2):15-29
MDM2 is an oncogene that mainly functions to modulate p53 tumor suppressor activity. In normal cells the MDM2 protein binds to the p53 protein and maintains p53 at low levels by increasing its susceptibility to proteolysis by the 26S proteosome. Immediately after the application of cellular stress, the ability of MDM2 to bind to p53 is blocked or altered in a fashion that prevents MDM2-mediated degradation. As a result, p53 levels rise, causing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. In this review, we present evidence for the existence of three highly conserved regions (CRs) shared by MDM2 proteins and MDMX proteins of different species. These highly conserved regions encompass residues 42-94 (CR1), 301-329 (CR2), and 444-483 (CR3) on human MDM2. These three domains are respectively important for binding p53, for binding the retinoblastoma protein, and for transferring ubiquitin to p53. This review discusses the major milestones uncovered in MDM2 research during the past 12 years and potential uses of this knowledge in the fight against cancer.  相似文献
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S Nakielny  P Cohen  J Wu    T Sturgill 《The EMBO journal》1992,11(6):2123-2129
A 'MAP kinase activator' was purified several thousand-fold from insulin-stimulated rabbit skeletal muscle, which resembled the 'activator' from nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells in that it could be inactivated by incubation with protein phosphatase 2A, but not by protein tyrosine phosphatases and its apparent molecular mass was 45-50 kDa. In the presence of MgATP, 'MAP kinase activator' converted the normal 'wild-type' 42 kDa MAP kinase from an inactive dephosphorylated form to the fully active diphosphorylated species. Phosphorylation occurred on the same threonine and tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated in vivo in response to growth factors or phorbol esters. A mutant MAP kinase produced by changing a lysine at the active centre to arginine was phosphorylated in an identical manner by the 'MAP kinase activator', but no activity was generated. The results demonstrate that 'MAP kinase activator' is a protein kinase (MAP kinase kinase) and not a protein that stimulates the autophosphorylation of MAP kinase. MAP kinase kinase is the first established example of a protein kinase that can phosphorylate an exogenous protein on threonine as well as tyrosine residues.  相似文献
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The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) regulate the caspase family of cysteine proteases, which play an important role in the execution of programmed cell death. Human X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent inhibitor of caspases-3, -7, and -9. Here we show that the Bir3 domain is the minimal region of XIAP that is needed for potent caspase-9 inhibition. The three-dimensional structure of the Bir3 domain of XIAP, determined by NMR spectroscopy, resembles a classical zinc finger and consists of five alpha-helices, a three-stranded beta-sheet, and a zinc atom chelated to three cysteines and one histidine. The structure of the Bir3 domain is similar to that of the Bir2 domain of XIAP but differs from the previously determined structure of the Bir3 domain of MIHB. Based on site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified the regions of the Bir3 domain of XIAP that are important for inhibiting caspase-9. Despite the structural similarities of the Bir2 and Bir3 domain of XIAP, a different set of residues were found to be critical for inhibiting the individual caspases. These results suggest that XIAP inhibits caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a different manner.  相似文献
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p120cas is a tyrosine kinase substrate implicated in ligand-induced receptor signaling through the epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and colony-stimulating factor receptors and in cell transformation by Src. Here we report that p120 associates with a complex containing E-cadherin, alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and plakoglobin. Furthermore, p120 precisely colocalizes with E-cadherin and catenins in vivo in both normal and Src-transformed MDCK cells. Unlike beta-catenin and plakoglobin, p120 has at least four isoforms which are differentially expressed in a variety of cell types, suggesting novel means of modulating cadherin activities in cells. In Src-transformed MDCK cells, p120, beta-catenin, and plakoglobin were heavily phosphorylated on tyrosine, but the physical associations between these proteins were not disrupted. Association of p120 with the cadherin machinery indicates that both Src and receptor tyrosine kinases cross talk with proteins important for cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. These results also strongly suggest a role for p120 in cell adhesion.  相似文献
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Here we describe a small family of proteins, termed MCIP1 and MCIP2 (for myocyte-enriched calcineurin interacting protein), that are expressed most abundantly in striated muscles and that form a physical complex with calcineurin A. MCIP1 is encoded by DSCR1, a gene located in the Down syndrome critical region. Expression of the MCIP family of proteins is up-regulated during muscle differentiation, and their forced overexpression inhibits calcineurin signaling to a muscle-specific target gene in a myocyte cell background. Binding of MCIP1 to calcineurin A requires sequence motifs that resemble calcineurin interacting domains found in NFAT proteins. The inhibitory action of MCIP1 involves a direct association with the catalytic domain of calcineurin, rather than interference with the function of downstream components of the calcineurin signaling pathway. The interaction between MCIP proteins and calcineurin may modulate calcineurin-dependent pathways that control hypertrophic growth and selective programs of gene expression in striated muscles.  相似文献
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