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Room‐temperature Li/Na‐S batteries are promising energy storage solutions, but unfortunately suffer from serious cycling problems rooted in their polysulfide intermediates. The conventional strategy to tackle this issue is to design host materials for trapping polysulfides via weak physical confinement and interfacial chemical interactions. Even though beneficial, their capability for the polysulfide immobilization is still limited. Herein, the unique sulfiphilic nature of metallic Cu is revisited. Upon the exposure to polysulfide in aqueous or aprotic solution, the surface sulfidization rapidly takes place, resulting in the formation of Cu2S nanoflake arrays with tunable texture. When the sulfidized Cu current collector is directly used as the sulfur‐equivalent cathode, it enables high‐performance Li/Na‐S batteries at room temperature with reasonable high sulfur loading. Specific capacities up to ≈1200 mAh g−1 for Li‐S and ≈400 mAh g−1 for Na‐S are measured when normalized to the amount of equivalent sulfur, and can be readily sustained for >1000 cycles.  相似文献
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The search for earth‐abundant and high‐performance electrode materials for sodium‐ion batteries represents an important challenge to current battery research. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, particularly MoS2, have attracted increasing attention recently, but few of them so far have been able to meet expectations. In this study, it is demonstrated that another phase of molybdenum sulfide—amorphous chain‐like MoS3—can be a better choice as the anode material of sodium‐ion batteries. Highly compact MoS3 particles infiltrated with carbon nanotubes are prepared via the facile acid precipitation method in ethylene glycol. Compared to crystalline MoS2, the resultant amorphous MoS3 not only exhibits impressive gravimetric performance—featuring excellent specific capacity (≈615 mA h g−1), rate capability (235 mA h g−1 at 20 A g−1), and cycling stability but also shows exceptional volumetric capacity of ≈1000 mA h cm−3 and an areal capacity of >6.0 mA h cm−2 at very high areal loadings of active materials (up to 12 mg cm−2). The experimental results are supported by density functional theory simulations showing that the 1D chains of MoS3 can facilitate the adsorption and diffusion of Na+ ions. At last, it is demonstrated that the MoS3 anode can be paired with an Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode to afford full cells with great capacity and cycling performance.  相似文献
3.
The lithium–sulfur batteries are susceptible to the loss of sulfur as dissolved polysulfides in the electrolyte and their ensuing redox shutting effect. The acceleration of the conversion kinetics of dissolved polysulfides into the insoluble sulfur and lithium sulfide via electrocatalysis has the appeal of being a root‐cause solution. MoS2 is the most common electrocatalyst used for this purpose. It is demonstrated that how the effectiveness can be improved by simultaneous cobalt and phosphorus doping of MoS2 nanotubes (P‐Mo0.9Co0.1S2‐2, containing 1.81 at% of P). Cobalt doping induces the transformation of MoS2 from 2H phase to metallic 1T phase, which improves the electrical conductivity of the MoS2. The Co–P coordinated sites on the catalyst surface are highly active for the polysulfide conversion reactions. Consequently, a sulfur cathode with P‐Mo0.9Co0.1S2‐2 can decrease the capacity fade rate from 0.28% per cycle before modification (over 150 cycles at 0.5C rate) to 0.046% per cycle after modification (over 600 cycles at 1C rate). P‐Mo0.9Co0.1S2‐2 also enhances the high rate performance from a capacity of 338 to 931 mAh g−1 at 6C rate. The results of this study provide the first direct evidence of the beneficial effects of heteroatom codoping of polysulfide conversion catalysts.  相似文献
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大蚊属Tipula Linnaeus,1758是大蚊科中种类最多的属,目前其单系性尚未得到全面验证.此外,长角大蚊亚属Tipula (Sivatipula) Alexander,1964因其极长的触角以及独有的精子泵结构,明显不同于大蚊属其他亚属,使其亚属的分类地位存在争议.本研究基于COI序列对19个大蚊属物种及5个其他属物种进行了系统发育分析,并计算了物种间的遗传距离.研究结果表明:(1)邻接树(NJ)和最大似然树(ML)均显示长角大蚊亚属与大蚊属其他亚属未形成单系,大蚊属的单系性没有得到支持;(2)基于遗传距离和系统发育分析并结合形态信息,结果显示长角大蚊亚属独立于大蚊属内其他亚属,应将其提升为属级分类单元.  相似文献
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