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In the present paper, we explore the evolution of cluster structure in closely related species in the Euphydryas aurinia complex based on morphological (wing pattern, genital armatures) and molecular (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) characters. Male genitalia differ in the length and shape of the uncus, harpe and juxta branches, by the shape of some parts of the phallus, and by the amount of spikes on the ventral section of the valva. The main trends in the vertical distribution of the E. aurinia group are dwarfism with increasing altitude, coupled with enlargement of paler and darker‐coloured elements of the wing pattern, increasing the overall contrast. Unlike the Euphydryas maturna, the E. aurinia complex forms many local populations specialized under different ecological conditions, probably affected by different evolutionary scenarios. The phylogenetic analysis of the group reveals two ecologically distinct subgroups: one associated with the boreal forest‐mesophyllic meadow biome and one associated with the xeromesophyllic steppe biome. Within each group, two major ecological strategies have evolved in parallel: montane and lowland. Based on the results of the analyses, we revise the nomenclature as follows: E. aurinia pyrenesdebilis (Verity, 1928), stat. rev. (= debilis Oberthür, 1909, syn.n. , nomen nudum), E. aurinia bulgarica (Fruhstorfer, 1916), stat. rev. , E. aurinia provincialis (Boisduval, 1828), stat. rev. and E. beckeri (Lederer, 1853), stat. rev. The following name‐bearing types are designated: neotype of Papilio aurinia Rottemburg, 1775, neotype of Papilio merope de Prunner, 1798, lectotype of Melitaea beckeri Lederer, 1853, and lectotype of Melitaea aurinia banghaasi Seitz, 1908. All name‐bearing types are figured. A new subspecies, Euphydryas laeta ostracon Korb, Bolshakov, Fric, ssp.n. , is described (type locality by holotype data: Kazakhstan, Vostochno‐Kazakhstanskaya Oblast, Shemonaikha).  相似文献
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Leptotina butterflies (Lycaenidae, Polyommatiinae) are found mostly in tropical and subtropical areas around the globe, marginally penetrating into temperate regions. Here, we investigated phylogenetic and biogeographical relationships of most representatives of the subtribe, using both likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We also estimated the timing of their diversification. And lastly, we studied phylogeographic patterns of the most widespread species, Leptotes pirithous. DNA sequences from two mitochondrial (COI, COII) and two nuclear genes (wingless, Ef1α) were analysed for 13 species of the genus Leptotes Scudder and one species of the genus Cyclyrius Butler. Both genera together form a monophyletic clade, and Cyclyrius is rooted deep inside Leptotes. Therefore, we designate Cyclyrius to be a junior synonym of Leptotes. According to our study, the genus Leptotes originated between the late Eocene and early Oligocene (35–31 Ma). During the Miocene it dispersed to the rest of the southern hemisphere, with further speciation events within the Indo‐Australian region, and separate radiations in the Americas and the Afrotropics. Leptotes webbianus from the Canary Islands turned out to be sister to the American clade from which it split c. 12 Ma. Leptotes pirithous originated in Madagascar c. 4 Ma and invaded the whole of Africa and southern Europe, including numerous surrounding islands. Populations of L. pirithous from Mauritius and Madagascar turned out to represent a distinct species (Leptotes durrelli sp.n. ) and the same applies to the Australasian populations of Leptotes plinius (Leptotes lybas stat. rev. ). This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:20308930‐988B‐4327‐A35F‐CC983D46263B .  相似文献
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