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1.
Genetic analysis of rice grain quality   总被引:67,自引:0,他引:67  
 The inheritance of grain quality is more complicated than that of other agronomic traits in cereals due to epistasis, maternal and cytoplasmic effects, and the triploid nature of endosperm. In the present study, an established rice DH population derived from anther culture of an indica/japonica hybrid was used for genetic analysis of rice grain quality. A total of five parameters, amylose content (AC), alkali-spreading score (ASS), gel consistency (GC), percentage of grain with a white core (PGWC) and the square of the white core (SWC), were estimated for the DH lines and the parent varieties. For each parent, the value of each parameter was relatively stable in three locations, Beijing, Hangzhou and Chengdu, while the differences between the parents were significant for all five parameters. AC showed a bimodal distribution, and the distribution of ASS was skewed toward the value of JX17, while the other three parameters displayed continuous distributions among the DH lines with partially transgressive segregations. For AC, a minor and a major gene were found on chromosomes 5 and 6 respectively. The major gene, which should be an allele of wx, explained 91.9% of the total variation. For GC, two QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2 and 7 respectively. For ASS, a minor and a major gene were both located on chromosome 6. The major gene should be the same locus as the alkali degeneration gene (alk). Genetic linkage between alk and wx was found in QTL mapping. For PGWC, two QTLs were located on chromosomes 8 and 12. Only a minor QTL was found for SWC on chromosome 3. The results and the molecular markers presented here may be useful in rice breeding for grain quality improvement. Received: 24 April 1998 / Accepted: 13 August 1998  相似文献
2.
The intergeneric hybrid between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus was obtained by means of embryo culture technique with the latter as the pollen parent. The hybrid was morphologically intermediate between its parents, but could produce a lot of seeds when selfed. Somatic separation of the genomes from the two parental species was observed during the mitotic divisions of some of the hybrid cells. Thus, the hybrid became the mixoploid in nature, consisting of haploid and diploid cells of B. napus, and a nuclear — cytoplasmic hybrid, with the cytoplasm of B. napus and the nuclei of O. violaceus, and the hybrid cells. Pollen mother cells with 19, 12 and 6 bivalents, respectively, were produced by the hybrid. From the selfed progeny of the hybrid, mainly two kinds of plants, B. napus and the hybrid, were found. The hybrid plants of the selfed progeny again produced two kinds of plants, B. napus and the hybrid.  相似文献
3.
Drought is one of the main abiotic constraints in rice. A deep root system contributes efficiently to maintaining the water status of the crop through a stress period. After identifying QTLs affecting root parameters in a doubled-haploid (DH) population of rice derived from the cross IR64/Azucena, we started a marker-assisted backcross program to transfer the Azucena allele at four QTLs for deeper roots (on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 9) from selected DH lines into IR64. We selected the backcross progenies strictly on the basis of their genotypes at the marker loci in the target regions up to the BC3F2. We assessed the proportion of alleles remaining from Azucena in the non-target areas of the BC3F2 plants, which was in the range expected for the backcross stage reached. Twenty nine selected BC3F3 near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed and compared to IR64 for the target root traits and three non-target traits in replicated experiments. Of the three tested NILs carrying target 1, one had significantly improved root traits over IR64. Three of the seven NILs carrying target 7 alone, as well as three of the eigth NILs carrying both targets 1 and 7, showed significantly improved root mass at depth. Four of the six NILs carrying target 9 had significantly improved maximum root length. Five NILs carrying target 2 were phenotyped, but none had a root phenotype significantly different from that of IR64. A re-analysis of the initial data with the composite interval mapping technique revealed two linked QTLs with opposite effects in this area. Some NILs were taller than IR64 and all had a decreased tiller number because of a likely co-introgression of linked QTLs. The usefulness of NILs, the efficiency of marker-aided selection for QTLs and the relationship between root traits are discussed. The NILs with an improved root system will permit testing the importance of root depth for water-limited environments. Received: 17 July 2000 / Accepted: 20 October 2000  相似文献
4.
To evaluate and characterize the stability of traits transferred viaAgrobacterium transformation, foreign gene expression must be examined in sexually derived progeny. The objective of this study was to analyze three transgenic peanut plants, 1-10, 12-1, and 17-1, for the inheritance and expression of their foreign genes. Segregation ratios for the introduced genes in T2 plants gave either 100% or 3:1 expression of the -glucuronidase (GUS) gene, demonstrating recovery of both homozygous and heterozygous T1 plants. Fluorometric GUS assay in T1 and T2 generations of all three plants showed that the GUS gene was stably expressed in the progeny. DNA analyses showed 100% concordance between the presence of the foreign gene and enzyme activity. Our results demonstrate that transgenes in peanut introduced byAgrobacterium can be inherited in a Mendelian manner.Abbreviations GUS -Glucuronidase - MS Murashige and Skoog - MU 4-Methylumbelliferone - NPTII Neomycin phosphotransferase II  相似文献
5.
Bacterial blight (BB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a major disease of rice in several countries. Three BB resistance genes, xa5, xa13 and Xa21, were pyramided into cv. PR106, which is widely grown in Punjab, India, using marker-assisted selection. Lines of PR106 with pyramided genes were evaluated after inoculation with 17 isolates of the pathogen from the Punjab and six races of Xoo from the Philippines. Genes in combinations were found to provide high levels of resistance to the predominant Xoo isolates from the Punjab and six races from the Philippines. Lines of PR106 with two and three BB resistance genes were also evaluated under natural conditions at 31 sites in commercial fields. The combination of genes provided a wider spectrum of resistance to the pathogen population prevalent in the region; Xa21 was the most effective, followed by xa5. Resistance gene xa13 was the least effective against Xoo. Only 1 of the BB isolates, PX04, was virulent on the line carrying Xa21 but avirulent on the lines having xa5 and xa13 genes in combination with Xa21. Received: 26 May 2000 / Accepted: 16 August 2000  相似文献
6.
Genomic in situhybridization (GISH) to root-tip cells at mitotic metaphase, using genomic DNA probes from Thinopyrum intermedium and Pseudoroegneria strigosa, was used to examine the genomic constitution of Th. intermedium, the 56-chromosome partial amphiploid to wheat called Zhong 5 and disease-resistant derivatives of Zhong 5, in a wheat background. Evidence from GISH indicated that Th. intermedium contained seven pairs of St, seven JS and 21 J chromosomes; three pairs of Th. intermedium chromosomes with satellites in their short arms belonging to the St, J, J genomes and homoeologous groups 1, 1, and 5 respectively. GISH results using different materials and different probes showed that seven pairs of added Th. intermedium chromosomes in Zhong 5 included three pairs of St chromosomes, two pairs of JS chromosomes and two pairs of St-JS reciprocal tanslocation chromosomes. A pair of chromosomes, which substituted a pair of wheat chromosomes in Yi 4212 and in HG 295 and was added to 21 pairs of wheat chromosomes in the disomic additions Z1, Z2 and Z6, conferred BYDV-resistance and was identical to a pair of St-JS tanslocation chromosomes (StJS) in Zhong 5. The StJS chromosome had a special GISH signal pattern and could be easily distinguished from other added chromosomes in Zhong 5; it has not yet been possible to locate the BYDV-resistant gene(s) of this translocated chromosome either in the St chromosome portion belonging to homoeologous group 2 or in the JS chromosome portion whose homoeologous group relationship is still uncertain. Among 22 chromosome pairs in disomic addition line Z3, the added chromosome pair had satellites and belonged to the St genome and homoeologous group 1. Disomic addition line Z4 carried a pair of added chromosomes which was composed of a group-7 JS chromosome translocated with a wheat chromosome; this chromosome was different to 7 Ai-1, but was identical to 7 Ai-2. The leaf rust and stem rust resistance genes were located in the distal region of the long arm, whereas the stripe rust resistance gene(s) was located in the short arm or in the proximal region of the long arm of 7 Ai-2. A pair of JS-wheat translocation chromosomes, which originated from the WJS chromosomes in Z4, was added to the disomic addition line Z5; the added chromosomes of Z5 carried leaf and stem rust resistance but not stripe rust resistance; Z5 is a potentially useful source for rust resistance genes in wheat breeding and for cloning these novel rust-resistant genes. GISH analysis using the St genome as a probe has proved advantageous in identifying alien Th. intermedium in wheat. Received: 17 May 1999 / Accepted: 22 June 1999  相似文献
7.
Dietary-morphological relationships of fishes in Liangzi Lake, China   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
S. Xie  Y. Cui  Z. Li 《Journal of fish biology》2001,58(6):1714-1729
Species in Liangzi Lake were clustered into four trophic groups: Hemiramphus kurumeus and Hemiculter bleekeri bleekeri fed predominantly on terrestrial insects; Carassius auratus auratus and Abbottina rivularis on non-animal food; Hypseleotris swinhonis, Ctenogobius giurinus, Pseudorasbora parva and Toxabramis swinhonis on cladocerans or copepods; Culterichthys erythropterus on decapod shrimps. Gut length, mouth width, mouth height, gill raker length and gill raker spacing, varied widely among species. With the exception of three species pairs ( H. swinhonis, C. giurinus; C. erythropterus, H. kurumeus; T. swinhonis, H. bleekeri bleekeri ), principal components analysis of morphological variables revealed over-dispersion of species. Canonical correspondence analysis of dietary and morphological data revealed five significant dietary-morphological correlations. The first three roots explained > 85% of the total variance. The first root reflected mainly the relationship of gut length to non-animal food, with an increase in gut length associated with an increase in non-animal food. The second root was influenced strongly by the relationship of the gill raker spacing to consumption of copepods, with an increase in gill raker spacing associated positively with copepods in the diet. The third root was influenced by the relationship of mouth gape to consumption of fish and decapod shrimps, with an increase in mouth gape associated with more fish and decapod shrimps in the diet. These significant dietary-morphological relationships supported the eco-morphological hypotheses that fish morphology influence food use, and morphological variation is important in determining ecological segregation of co-existing fish species.  相似文献
8.
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) can cause severe yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the southern production region of the USA. Planting root-knot nematode-resistant cultivars is the most effective method of preventing yield loss. DNA marker-assisted breeding may accelerate the development of root-knot nematode-resistant cultivars. RFLP markers have previously been used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood] (Mi) in a F2:3 soybean population created by crossing the resistant PI96354 and the susceptible ’Bossier.’ A major QTL on linkage group (LG) O conditioning 31% of the variation in Mi gall number and a minor QTL on LG-G conditioning 14% of the gall variation were reported. With the development of SSR markers for soybean improvement, a higher level of mapping resolution and semi-automated detection has become possible. The objectives of this research were: (1) to increase the marker density in the genomic regions of the QTLs for Mi resistance on LG-O and LG-G with SSR markers; and (2) to confirm the effect of the QTLs in a second population and a different genetic background. With SSR markers, the QTL on LG-O was flanked by Satt492 and Satt358, and on LG-G by Satt012 and Satt505. Utilizing SSR markers flanking the two QTLs, marker-assisted selection was performed in a second F2:3 population of PI96354× Bossier. Results confirmed the effectiveness of marker-assisted selection to predict the Mi phenotypes. By screening the BC2F2 population of Prichard (3)×G93–9009 we confirmed that selection for the minor QTL on LG-G with flanking SSR markers would enhance the resistance of lines containing the major QTL (which is most-likely Rmi1). Received: 29 September 2000 / Accepted: 17 April 2001  相似文献
9.
 The recessive gene, xa13, confers resistance to Philippine race 6 (PXO99) of the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae. Fine genetic mapping and physical mapping were conducted as initial steps in an effort to isolate the gene. Using nine selected DNA markers and two F2 populations of 132 and 230 plants, xa13 was fine-mapped to a genomic region <4 cM on the long arm of rice chromosome 8, flanked by two RFLP markers, RG136 and R2027. Four DNA markers, RG136, R2027, S14003, and G1149, in the target region were used to identify bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones potentially harboring the xa13 locus from a rice BAC library. A total of 11 BACs were identified, forming four separate contigs including a single-clone contig, 29I3, associated with the RG136 STS marker, the S14003 contig consisting of four clones (44F8, 41O2, 12A16, and 12F20), the G1149 contig with two clones, 23D11 and 21H18, and the R2027 contig consisting of four overlapping clones, 42C23, 30B5, 6B7 and 21H14. Genetic mapping indicated that the xa13 locus was contained in the R2027 contig. Chromosomal walking on the R2027 contig resulted in two more clones, 33C7 and 14L3. DNA fingerprinting showed that the six clones of the R2027 contig were overlapping. Clone 44F8 hybridized with a single fragment from the clone 14L3, integrating the R2027 and S14003 contigs into a single contig consisting of ten BAC clones with a total size of approximately 330 kb. The physical presence of the xa13 locus in the contig was determined by mapping the ends of the BAC inserts generated by TAIL-PCR. In an F2 population of 230 plants, the BAC-end markers 42C23R and 6B7F flanked the xa13 locus. The probes 21H14F and 21H14R derived from BAC clone 21H14 were found to flank xa13 at a distance of 0.5 cM on either side, using a second F2 population of 132 plants. Thus, genetic mapping indicated that the contig and the 96-kb clone, 21H14, contained the xa13 locus. Received: 15 August 1998 / Accepted: 29 September 1998  相似文献
10.
Genetic organization of isozyme variation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated based on 17 polymorphic isozyme loci using a sample of 511 accessions of worldwide origin. The genetic diversity within the species was very high (H=0.36 with 4.82 alleles per locus), as compared with most selfing plant species. Three diversity centers were detected for isozyme variation including South Asia, China and Southeast Asia. The accessions were classified into three well-differentiated cultivar groups corresponding to the indica and japonica subspecies, and a new unnamed group. Variation within the cultivar groups accounted for 80% of the total isozyme variation. Within-country variation accounted for 58% of the total variation while among-region and among-country variation within the cultivar groups accounted for only 14% and 8% of the total variation. Analyses using log-linear models revealed that pronounced non-random associations between and among alleles at many unlinked isozyme loci were organized in a non-hierarchical pattern, and subspecific and macro-geographic differentiation was much more pronounced in multilocus phenotype frequencies than in allelic frequencies at individual loci. These results suggest that selection on multilocus gene complexes was largely responsible for the maintenance of the extensive isozyme variation within the species and the indica-japonica differentiation. Our results further suggest the independent domestication of indica and japonica, the dual origins of the indica rice from China and South Asia (India), and the differentiation of the ecotypes ’javanica’ and the ’temperate japonica’ within the japonica subspecies. Received: 5 August 1999 / Accepted: 13 December 1999  相似文献
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