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1.
Progress on mammalian comparative maps could be significantly accelerated by developing reagents defining orthologous landmarks in the genome of many mammalian species. Using the large databases of gene sequences, we designed 225 orthologous gene-specific primer pairs corresponding to 146 functional genes. Of these 225 primer pairs, 155 (68.9%), 182 (80.9%), 126 (56.0%), and 82 (36.4%) produced a single PCR product when tested against human, pig, dog, and hamster genomic DNA, respectively. In addition to the general rules of primer designing, particular factors must be taken into consideration when choosing gene-specific universal primers—for instance, preference for single-exon regions or highly conserved segments among species, avoidance of GC-rich regions. Sequencing all the canine PCR products traced by these primers demonstrated that of 123 traced canine fragments with readable and reliable sequences, 121 (98.4%) were found to match the GenBank orthologous sequences used for designing the primers, after a BLAST search. Comparative characterization of PCR fragments among human, pig, dog, and hamster revealed that the length of a single exon was much conserved among species, with few exceptions. As the fragments were traced with amplification by orthologous gene-specific primers, we suggest they be termed Traced Orthologous Amplified Sequence Tags (TOASTs). Received: 22 December 1997 / Accepted: 16 March 1998  相似文献
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Uv- and Gamma-Radiation Sensitive Mutants of Arabidopsis Thaliana   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
C. Z. Jiang  C. N. Yen  K. Cronin  D. Mitchell    A. B. Britt 《Genetics》1997,147(3):1401-1409
Arabidopsis seedlings repair UV-induced DNA damage via light-dependent and -independent pathways. The mechanism of the ``dark repair' pathway is still unknown. To determine the number of genes required for dark repair and to investigate the substrate-specificity of this process we isolated mutants with enhanced sensitivity to UV radiation in the absence of photoreactivating light. Seven independently derived UV sensitive mutants were isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population. These fell into six complementation groups, two of which (UVR1 and UVH1) have previously been defined. Four of these mutants are defective in the dark repair of UV-induced pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidinone dimers. These four mutant lines are sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of gamma radiation, suggesting that this repair pathway is also involved in the repair of some type of gamma-induced DNA damage product. The requirement for the coordinate action of several different gene products for effective repair of pyrimidine dimers, as well as the nonspecific nature of the repair activity, is consistent with nucleotide excision repair mechanisms previously described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and nonplant higher eukaryotes and inconsistent with substrate-specific base excision repair mechanisms found in some bacteria, bacteriophage, and fungi.  相似文献
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Abstract The participation of apoptotic cell death in the generalized Shwartzman reaction was examined. The generalized Shwartzman reaction was induced in mice by two consecutive injections of lipopolysaccharide. Vascular endothelial cells in various organs of those mice were stained positively by the in situ specific labeling of fragmented DNA. Renal tubules were also stained focally. It was suggested that apoptotic cell death might participate in the development of vascular endothelial cell damage and acute tubular necrosis in the generalized Shwartzman reaction. Simultaneous administration of anti-γ-interferon antibody in the preparative injection of lipopolysaccharide completely blocked apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Priming with recombinant γ-interferon instead of lipopolysaccharide could produce apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. It was suggested that γ-interferon might play a critical role on sensitization of endothelial cells for apoptosis.  相似文献
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Objectives of the study were ascertaining the temporal variation of fish density and biomass as well as the changes in fish species composition in a surveyed area before and after deployment of an artificial reef. The study was initiated within an area of 0.25 km2 in response to a strong demand for fisheries enhancement and resource conservation in Xiangshan Bay, Zhejiang Province, China. This survey data was collected through a SIMRAD EY60 system and bottom trinal nets pre‐ and post‐construction of the artificial reefs, May 2011 to September 2012 in Xiangshan Bay. The raw data were analyzed using fisheries acoustic Echoview (Myriax) software combined with bottom trinal net data. The results showed that estimated fish density, represented by a nautical area scattering coefficient (NASC) at the artificial reef increased by 14.04, 31.10, 17.35% in May, July and September 2012 after construction of the artificial reef, and that the fish biomass increased by 8.92, 29.06, and 18.09% in these three months of 2012 in contrast to 2011. The numbers of fish species varied from 7 to 9 in May, from 10 to 14 in July and from 9 to 12 in September of 2012. These temporal changes in the fishery status were considered as being mainly due to deployment of the artificial reefs in early April 2012.  相似文献
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Abstract Immunization with lipopolysaccharide from Klebsiella O3 as an immunological adjuvant did not cause the death of mice in systemic anaphylaxis to bovine serum albumin. On the other hand, most mice immunized with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O111, Klebsiella O4 and Salmonella minnesota did die. Klebsiella O3 lipopolysaccharide enhanced IgM and IgG antibody response to BSA more markedly than Escherichia coli O111 lipopolysaccharide, while it affected the production of IgE antibody only slightly. Therefore, it is suggested that the inhibition of systemic anaphylaxis by Klebsiella O3 lipopolysaccharide adjuvant might be related to its strong adjuvant action on IgM and IgG class antibody production, and that high levels of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies might act as blocking antibodies in the development of IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis.  相似文献
8.
As research funding becomes more competitive, it will be imperative for researchers to break the mentality of a single laboratory/single research focus and develop an interdisciplinary research team aimed at addressing real world challenges. Members of this team may be at the same institution, may be found regionally, or may be international. However, all must share the same passion for a topic that is bigger than any individual’s research focus. Moreover, special consideration should be given to the professional development issues of junior faculty participating in interdisciplinary research teams. While participation may be “humbling” at times, the sheer volume of research progress that may be achieved through interdisciplinary collaboration, even in light of a short supply of grant dollars, is remarkable.  相似文献
9.
Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.  相似文献
10.
We examined the growth and interactions between the bloom-forming flagellates Prorocentrum minimum and Heterosigma akashiwo using bi-algal culture experiments. When both species were inoculated at high cell densities, growth of H. akashiwo was inhibited by P. minimum. In other combinations of inoculation densities, the species first reaching the stationary phase substantially suppressed maximum cell densities of the other species, but the growth inhibition effect of P. minimum was stronger than that of H. akashiwo. We used a mathematical model to simulate growth and interactions of P. minimum and H. akashiwo in bi-algal cultures. The model indicated that P. minimum always out-competed H. akashiwo over time. Additional experiments showed that crude extracts from P. minimum and H. akashiwo cultures did not affect the growth of either species, but both strongly inhibited the growth of the bloom-forming diatom Skeletonema costatum. Further experiments showed that it was unlikely that reactive oxygen species produced by H. akashiwo were responsible for the inhibition of P. minimum growth.  相似文献
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