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X Yu  X Yuan  Z Matsuda  T H Lee    M Essex 《Journal of virology》1992,66(8):4966-4971
Accumulating evidence suggests that the matrix (MA) protein of retroviruses plays a key role in virus assembly by directing the intracellular transport and membrane association of the Gag polyprotein. In this report, we show that the MA protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is also critical for the incorporation of viral Env proteins into mature virions. Several deletions introduced in the MA domain (p17) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag polyprotein did not greatly affect the synthesis and processing of the Gag polyprotein or the formation of virions. Analysis of the viral proteins revealed normal levels of Gag and Pol proteins in these mutant virions, but the Env proteins, gp120 and gp41, were hardly detectable in the mutant virions. Our data suggest that an interaction between the viral Env protein and the MA domain of the Gag polyprotein is required for the selective incorporation of Env proteins during virus assembly. Such an interaction appears to be very sensitive to conformational changes in the MA domain, as five small deletions in two separate regions of p17 equally inhibited viral Env protein incorporation. Mutant viruses were not infectious in T cells. When mutant and wild-type DNAs were cotransfected into T cells, the replication of wild-type virus was also hindered. These results suggest that the incorporation of viral Env protein is a critical step for replication of retroviruses and can be a target for the design of antiviral strategies.  相似文献
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X Yu  X Yuan  M F McLane  T H Lee    M Essex 《Journal of virology》1993,67(1):213-221
In-frame stop codons were introduced into the coding region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane protein (gp41). Truncation of 147 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of gp41 (TM709) significantly decreased the stability and cell surface expression of the viral Env proteins, while truncation of 104 amino acids (TM752) did not. Truncation of 43 or more amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of gp41 generated mutant viruses which were noninfectious in several human CD4+ T lymphoid cell lines and fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Analysis of the noninfectious mutant virions revealed significantly reduced incorporation of the Env proteins compared with the wild-type virions. Comparable amounts of Env proteins were detected on the surfaces of wild-type- and TM752-transfected cells, suggesting that the structures of gp41 required for efficient incorporation of Env proteins were disrupted in mutant TM752. Truncation of the last 12 amino acids (TM844) from the carboxyl terminus of gp41 did not significantly affect the assembly and release of virions or the incorporation of Env proteins into mature virions. However, the TM844 virus had dramatically decreased infectivity compared with the wild-type virus. This suggests that the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 also plays a role in other steps of virus replication.  相似文献
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Preparation of chitooligosaccharides from chitosan by a complex enzyme   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
Zhang H  Du Y  Yu X  Mitsutomi M  Aiba S 《Carbohydrate research》1999,320(3-4):257-260
Chitosan of 24% degree of acetylation was depolymerized by a mixture of cellulase, alpha amylase, and proteinase to give the title oligosaccharides. The removal of products by membrane separation permitted yield maximization of products having degree of polymerization in the 3–10 range.  相似文献
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Cellular immune responses play a critical role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the breadth of these responses at the single-epitope level has not been comprehensively assessed. We therefore screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 57 individuals at different stages of HIV-1 infection for virus-specific T-cell responses using a matrix of 504 overlapping peptides spanning all expressed HIV-1 proteins in a gamma interferon-enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot) assay. HIV-1-specific T-cell responses were detectable in all study subjects, with a median of 14 individual epitopic regions targeted per person (range, 2 to 42), and all 14 HIV-1 protein subunits were recognized. HIV-1 p24-Gag and Nef contained the highest epitope density and were also the most frequently recognized HIV-1 proteins. The total magnitude of the HIV-1-specific response ranged from 280 to 25,860 spot-forming cells (SFC)/10(6) PBMC (median, 4,245) among all study participants. However, the number of epitopic regions targeted, the protein subunits recognized, and the total magnitude of HIV-1-specific responses varied significantly among the tested individuals, with the strongest and broadest responses detectable in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Neither the breadth nor the magnitude of the total HIV-1-specific CD8+-T-cell responses correlated with plasma viral load. We conclude that a peptide matrix-based Elispot assay allows for rapid, sensitive, specific, and efficient assessment of cellular immune responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome. These data also suggest that the impact of T-cell responses on control of viral replication cannot be explained by the mere quantification of the magnitude and breadth of the CD8+-T-cell response, even if a comprehensive pan-genome screening approach is applied.  相似文献
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CD28-specific antibody prevents graft-versus-host disease in mice   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
The costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 regulate T cell activation by delivering activation signals through CD28 and inhibitory signals through CTLA4. Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) is caused by activated donor T cells. Previously, we showed that CD28-deficient donor T cells induced less-severe GVHD than wild-type donor T cells, suggesting that CD28 signals exacerbate GVHD. In this paper we demonstrate that CTLA4 signals attenuate the severity of GVHD. Targeting the CD28 receptor with a specific mAb modulates the receptor in vivo, inhibits donor T cell expansion, and prevents GVHD. CTLA4 signaling was necessary for this effect because treatment with a soluble ligand that blocks binding of B7 to both CD28 and CTLA4 did not prevent GVHD as effectively as anti-CD28 mAb. These results support the current model of T cell costimulation in which CD28 signals amplify GVHD while CTLA4 signals inhibit GVHD, providing evidence that selective targeting of CD28 might be a better therapeutic strategy for inducing immunological tolerance than blocking the ligands for both CD28 and CTLA4.  相似文献
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