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1.
The major components of the mitosis-specific histone H1 kinase are CDC2 kinase and cyclin and the consensus amino acid sequence for phosphorylation by this enzyme has been proposed. We have noted the presence of such sequences in six sites of the tumor suppressor gene RB protein and determined whether or not RB protein is in fact phosphorylated by this kinase. Highly purified enzyme was used for this purpose. HeLa cell extracts immunoprecipitated with anti-RB antiserum as well as RB proteins expressed in E. coli cells were shown to be phosphorylated by this kinase in vitro. Synthetic peptides for the six expected sites were also phosphorylated. These results suggest the possibility that the function of RB protein is regulated by CDC2 kinase.  相似文献
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L F Yasuda  M C Yao 《Cell》1991,67(3):505-516
Large palindromic DNAs are formed in many cell types, but their molecular mechanism is unknown. During nuclear differentiation in Tetrahymena, the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) are converted from a single integrated copy to an extrachromosomal head-to-head palindrome. Using in vitro mutagenesis and Tetrahymena transformation, we show that two properties of the rDNA are necessary and sufficient for palindrome formation. The first is a pair of 42 bp inverted repeats found at the rDNA's 5' end. Its inverted symmetry, but not specific sequence, is important. The second is a free end next to the repeats. It is normally created by chromosome breakage in vivo, but can also be provided by restriction endonuclease cutting before transformation. We also demonstrate that the ability to form palindromes is not restricted to developing nuclei, but is present in vegetative cells as well. This process may represent a general mechanism for palindrome formation in eukaryotes.  相似文献
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CD44: functional relevance to inflammation and malignancy   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
CD44 is a principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronan, a major component of extracellular matrices. Cells are surrounded by and encounter matrix in vivo, which in turn serves a variety of cell functions through the direct adhesion via their receptors. CD44 communicates cell-matrix interactions into the cell via "outside-in signaling" and has an important role in biological activities. The interaction of CD44 with fragmented hyaluronan on rheumatoid synovial cells induces expression of VCAM-1 and Fas on the cells, which leads to Fas-mediated apoptosis of synovial cells by the interaction of T cells bearing FasL. On the other hand, engagement of CD44 on tumor cells derived from lung cancer reduces Fas expression and Fas-mediated apoptosis, resulting in less susceptibility of the cells to CTL-mediated cytotoxicity through Fas-FasL pathway. Thus, although the CD44-mediated signaling differs among cells and circumstances, we here propose the functional role of CD44 in inflammatory processes and tumor susceptibility and the rational design of future therapeutic strategies including the exploitation of CD44-mediated pathway in vivo.  相似文献
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Bacillus pumilus TYO-67 was isolated from tofu (soybean curd) as the best producer of a soybean-milk-coagulating enzyme, induced by the addition of soybean protein to the growth medium. The enzyme was purified approximately 30-fold with an 11% yield. The homogeneous preparation of the enzyme showed that it is a monomer with a molecular mass of about 30 kDa and has an isoelectric point at pH 9.75. The results of amino acid composition analyses showed that the enzyme is rich in alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, serine and valine. Although the amino-terminal amino acid (alanine) was identical with that of subtilisins, the amino-terminal sequence was different from those of subtilisins. The α-helix content of the enzyme was calculated to be 28.2%. The optimum pH and temperature were observed at 6.0–6.1 and 65 °C respectively. The enzyme was significantly activated by the addition of 1 mM Mn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Sr2+ ions in the reaction mixture, and its thermal stability was significantly increased by Ca2+ ion. Received: 31 August 1998 / Received last revision: 1 December 1998 / Accepted: 20 December 1998  相似文献
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A mouse temperature-sensitive mutant for cell growth, tsFT210, was characterized. More than 90% of the mutant cells were arrested at the G2 phase at the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C). In this mutant, the activity of cdc2 kinase did not increase at the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C) but did increase at the permissive temperature (33 degrees C) at the G2/M phase in the cell cycle. The in vitro activity of cdc2 kinase of tsFT210 was more thermolabile than that of wild-type cells. The amount of cdc2 kinase in tsFT210 cells decreased when the cells were incubated at 39 degrees C, but that in wild-type cells did not. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a point mutation in cDNA of cdc2 kinase was found in tsFT210, and as a result, the proline of wild-type cdc2 kinase at the 272 amino acid residues from N-terminal methionine changed to serine. During preparation of this paper, the detection of two mutation sites of this mutant was reported (Th'ng, J.P.H., Wright, P.S., Hamaguchi, J., Lee, M.G., Norbury, C.J., Nurse, P., and Bradbury, E.M. (1990). Cell, 63: 313-324); one was the same site as reported here, the other was A-to-G change in the 154th base from base A in initial ATG, and this caused the change of isoleucine to valine in the PSTAIR region of cdc2 kinase. This mutation in the PSTAIR region was not detected by us. The probable reason for this discrepancy was in that Th'ng and his group sequenced a cDNA cloned from the amplified cDNAs by PCR, and did not directly sequence the amplified cDNA as we did.  相似文献
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2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an environmental contaminant, induced xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase (XO/XDH) activities, in addition to ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities in liver of mice. When TCDD was given to mice as a single oral dose of 40 microg/kg, the activities of XO and XDH increased about threefold within 3 days and the increased levels were maintained for 4 weeks. The treatment of mice with 3-methylcholanthrene also induced XO/XDH activities, but phenobarbital and dexamethasone had no effect. The level of aldehyde oxidase, a molybdenum flavoenzyme related to XO/XDH, in mouse liver was also enhanced about 1.5-fold by TCDD treatment. The inducing effect of TCDD and 3-methylcholanthrene was not observed in null mice (AhR(-/-)), which lack the AhR gene. XO and XDH activities were induced by TCDD in heterozygous mice (AhR(+/-)). The lipid peroxidation in liver was stimulated by TCDD. The induction of XO and XDH, which produces reactive oxygen species, may contribute to the various toxicities of TCDD.  相似文献
9.
Phosphorylation of tau is regulated by PKN   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
For the phosphorylation state of microtubule-associated protein, tau plays a pivotal role in regulating microtubule networks in neurons. Tau promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules. The potential for tau to bind to microtubules is down-regulated after local phosphorylation. When we investigated the effects of PKN activation on tau phosphorylation, we found that PKN triggers disruption of the microtubule array both in vitro and in vivo and predominantly phosphorylates tau in microtubule binding domains (MBDs). PKN has a catalytic domain highly homologous to protein kinase C (PKC), a kinase that phosphorylates Ser-313 (= Ser-324, the number used in this study) in MBDs. Thus, we identified the phosphorylation sites of PKN and PKC subtypes (PKC-alpha, -betaI, -betaII, -gamma, -delta, -epsilon, -zeta, and -lambda) in MBDs. PKN phosphorylates Ser-258, Ser-320, and Ser-352, although all PKC subtypes phosphorylate Ser-258, Ser-293, Ser-324, and Ser-352. There is a PKN-specific phosphorylation site, Ser-320, in MBDs. HIA3, a novel phosphorylation-dependent antibody recognizing phosphorylated tau at Ser-320, showed immunoreactivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing tau and the active form of PKN, but not in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing tau and the inactive form of PKN. The immunoreactivity for phosphorylated tau at Ser-320 increased in the presence of a phosphatase inhibitor, FK506 treatment, which means that calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B) may be involved in dephosphorylating tau at Ser-320 site. We also noted that PKN reduces the phosphorylation recognized by the phosphorylation-dependent antibodies AT8, AT180, and AT270 in vivo. Thus PKN serves as a regulator of microtubules by specific phosphorylation of tau, which leads to disruption of tubulin assembly.  相似文献
10.
Phenytoin (PHT) is a primary antiepileptic drug. Cerebellar malformations in human neonates have been described following intrauterine exposure to PHT. The neonatal period of development in the cerebellum in mice corresponds to the last trimester in humans. To examine the neurotoxic effects of PHT in the developing cerebellum, we administered PHT orally to newborn mice once a day during postnatal days 2-4. We observed many apoptotic cells in the external granular layer (EGL) on postnatal day 5, labeled cells in the EGL still remaining 72 h after labeling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, and EGL thicker than that in the control on postnatal day 14. These results showed that PHT induced cell death of external granule cells and inhibited migration of granule cells in cerebella. In specimens immunostained with antibody against inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, Purkinje cells in the treated group had poor and immature arbors, and partially showed an irregular arrangement. The motor performance of the treated mice in a rotating rod test was impaired, although there were no changes in muscular strength or in walking pattern at the period of maturity. These findings indicate that PHT induces neurotoxic damage to granule cells and Purkinje cells in the developing cerebellum and impairs selected aspects of motor coordination ability.  相似文献
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