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1.
DISTRIBUTION AND PROPERTIES OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME OF RAT BRAIN   总被引:29,自引:19,他引:10  
Abstract— Angiotensin converting enzyme of rat brain was studied using Hip-His-Leu as substrate. The highest specific activity of the enzyme was associated with the microsomal fraction. The specific activity of the microsomal enzyme in several regions of the rat brain varied significantly. For example, the specific activities of the striatal and pituitary enzymes were about 10-fold greater than that of the cerebral cortical enzyme. The enzyme required chloride ion; moreover, activity was inhibited in the presence of disodium EDTA or O-phenanthroline, effects suggesting that the converting enzyme of brain is a metalloprotein. SQ-20881, a nonapeptide that inhibits converting enzyme in peripheral tissue, was a potent inhibitor of the enzyme of brain. In addition to Hip-His-Leu, the microsomal fraction was capable of liberating C terminal dipeptides from angiotensin I, Hip-Gly-Gly and Z-Gly- Gly-Val. The broad substrate specificity of the enzyme suggests that, in addition to the possible contribution of the enzyme to the brain renin-angiotensin system, other naturally occurring peptides might also be substrates for the enzyme.  相似文献
2.
Membranous crude replication complexes (CRC) were isolated from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells as recently described (N. Takeda, R.J. Kuhn, C.-F. Yang, T. Takegami, and E. Wimmer, J. Virol. 60:43-53, 1986). Viruses used to produce the CRC were poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney), [PV-1(M)], poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) [PV-1(S)], and four in vitro recombinants that were constructed from infectious cDNA clones. RNA synthesis in CRC was studied. No end-linked, full-length double-stranded poliovirus RNA was detected in CRC regardless of whether nonionic detergent (Nonidet P-40) was added prior to incubation. Synthesis of VPg-pU and VPg-pUpU, two nucleotidyl proteins presumed to be involved in the initiation of RNA synthesis, was slower at 30 degrees C in CRC induced by PV-1(S) than by PV-1(M). This observation was used to design a pulse-chase experiment whose result suggested that synthesis of VPg-pUpU occurred by uridylylation of VPg-pU. Synthesis of VPg-pU(pU) was thermosensitive in CRC induced by PV-1(S). With CRC of recombinant viruses, the thermosensitive block covaried to nucleotide substitutions in PV-1(S) that mapped to the virus-induced RNA polymerase 3Dpol. We conclude that plus-stranded RNA synthesis in CRC does not proceed via hairpin structures. The results of VPg-pU----VPg-pUpU synthesis are consistent with a model in which VPg-pU is the primer of RNA synthesis mediated by 3Dpol. The data suggest that uridylylation of VPg or a precursor thereof may be catalyzed by 3Dpol itself, a mechanism resembling events occurring in adenovirus DNA replication.  相似文献
3.
Native intermediate filament (IF) preparations from the baby hamster kidney fibroblastic cell line (BHK-21) contain a number of minor polypeptides in addition to the IF structural subunit proteins desmin, a 54,000-mol-wt protein, and vimentin, a 55,000-mol-wt protein. A monoclonal antibody was produced that reached exclusively with a high molecular weight (300,000) protein representative of these minor proteins. Immunological methods and comparative peptide mapping techniques demonstrated that the 300,000-mol-wt species was biochemically distinct from the 54,000- and 55,000-mol-wt proteins. Double-label immunofluorescence observations on spread BHK cells using this monoclonal antibody and a rabbit polyclonal antibody directed against the 54,000- and 55,000-mol-wt proteins showed that the 300,000-mol-wt species co-distributed with IF in a fibrous pattern. In cells treated with colchicine or those in the early stages of spreading, double-labeling with these antibodies revealed the co-existence of the respective antigens in the juxtanuclear cap of IF that is characteristic of cells in these physiological states. After colchicine removal, or in the late stages of cell spreading, the 300,00-mol-wt species and the IF subunits redistributed to their normal, highly coincident cytoplasmic patterns. Ultrastructural localization by the immunogold technique using the monoclonal antibody supported the light microscopic findings in that the 300,000-mol-wt species was associated with IF in the several physiological and morphological cell states investigated. The gold particle pattern was less intimately associated with IF than that defined by anti-54/55 and was one of non-uniform distribution along IF, being clustered primarily at points of proximity between IF, where an amorphous, proteinaceous material was often the labeled element. Occasionally, "bridges" of label were seen extending outward from such clusters on IF. Gold particles were infrequently bound to microtubules, microfilaments, or other cellular organelles, and when so, IF were usually contiguous. During multiple cycles of in vitro disassembly/assembly of the IF from native preparations, the 300,000-mol-wt protein remained in the fraction containing the 54,000- and 55,000-mol-wt structural subunits, whether the latter were in the soluble state or pelleted as formed filaments. In keeping with the nomenclature developed for the microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), the acronym IFAP-300K (intermediate filament associated protein) is proposed for this molecule.  相似文献
4.
We exploited the newly developed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to study the polymorphism, distribution and inheritance of AFLP markers with a doubled haploid rice population derived from ‘IR64’/‘Azucena’. Using only 20 pairs of primer combinations, we detected 945 AFLP bands of which 208 were polymorphic. All 208 AFLP markers were mapped and distributed over all 12 chromosomes. When these were compared with RFLP markers already mapped in the population, we found the AFLP markers to be highly polymorphic in rice and to follow Mendelian segregation. As linkage map of rice can be generated rapidly with AFLP markers they will be very useful for marker-assisted backcrossing. Received: 11 April 1996 / Accepted: 14 June 1996  相似文献
5.
The gp63 gene of Leishmania major was transformed into the AroA- vaccine strain of Salmonella typhimurium (SL3261). The construct (SL3261-gp63), which stably expresses the gp63 Ag in vitro, was used to immunize CBA mice by the oral route. Spleen cells from mice inoculated with SL3261-gp63 developed antibody and proliferative T cell response to L. major. They did not express detectable delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity. The activated T cells are mainly CD4+ and secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma but no IL-4. The orally immunized mice developed significant resistance against a challenge L. major infection. We have, therefore, demonstrated the feasibility of oral vaccination against leishmaniasis and that the oral route of antigen delivery via the heterologous carrier may preferentially induce Th1 subsets of CD4+ cells.  相似文献
6.
We developed a simple and universal method, by modifying the universal CAS (Chrome azurol S) assay, measuring siderophores in various biological fluids. We named the assay as CAS agar diffusion (CASAD) assay. CAS plate devoid of nutrients was prepared by using Bacto-agar (1.5%, w/v) as a matrix. Holes with 5-mm-diameter were punched on the CAS agar plate. Each hole was added by 35 microl of the test fluids containing Desferal that was twofold serially diluted. After incubating at 37 degrees C or room temperature for 4-8 h, the size of orange haloes formed around the holes was measured. The size of orange haloes correlated well with the concentration of Desferal in all the biological fluids tested in this study. CASAD assay showed consistent results in wide pH range from 5 to 9. Addition of iron to the test fluids containing Desferal decreased the size of orange haloes in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that the CASAD assay detects only iron non-bound siderophore. These results suggest that CASAD assay would serve as a simple, stable, and highly reproducible test for screening and quantitative siderophore analysis in biological fluids.  相似文献
7.
Minimum ribonucleotide requirement for catalysis by the RNA hammerhead domain.   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
Several mixed DNA/RNA and 2'-O-methylribonucleotide/RNA analogues derived from the "hammerhead" domain of RNA catalysis have been prepared to study the minimum ribonucleotide requirement for catalytic activity. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing from seven to as few as four ribonucleotides are active in cleaving a substrate RNA. Predominantly deoxyribonucleotide-containing analogues have kcat values 20-300 and kcat/KM values approximately 100-2000 times lower than those of all-RNA ribozyme. In the case of predominantly 2'-O-methyl analogues, at least five ribonucleotides are needed to assure catalytic activity. In addition, both predominantly deoxyribonucleotide and 2'-O-methyl oligomers are at least 3 orders of magnitude more stable than an all-RNA ribozyme in incubations with RNase A and a yeast extract. These results suggest that the ribophosphate backbone is not a strict requirement for ribozyme-type catalysis. The identification of the four required ribonucleotides in the hammerhead catalytic domain provides valuable information for the rational design of chemical species having ribonuclease activities.  相似文献
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