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1.
H Niwa  K Yamamura  J Miyazaki 《Gene》1991,108(2):193-199
We have developed a new expression vector which allows efficient selection for transfectants that express foreign genes at high levels. The vector is composed of a ubiquitously strong promoter based on the beta-actin promoter, a 69% subregion of the bovine papilloma virus genome, and a mutant neomycin phosphotransferase II-encoding gene driven by a weak promoter, which confers only marginal resistance to G418. Thus, high concentrations of G418 (approx. 800 micrograms/ml) effectively select for transfectants containing a high vector copy number (greater than 300). We tested this system by producing human interleukin-2 (IL-2) in L cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and the results showed that high concentrations of G418 efficiently yielded L cell and CHO cell transfectants stably producing IL-2 at levels comparable with those previously attained using gene amplification. The vector sequences were found to have integrated into the host chromosome, and were stably maintained in the transfectants for several months.  相似文献
2.
The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In this study, we analyzed globular domain adiponectin (gAd) transgenic (Tg) mice crossed with leptin-deficient ob/ob or apoE-deficient mice. Interestingly, despite an unexpected similar body weight, gAd Tg ob/ob mice showed amelioration of insulin resistance and beta-cell degranulation as well as diabetes, indicating that globular adiponectin and leptin appeared to have both distinct and overlapping functions. Amelioration of diabetes and insulin resistance was associated with increased expression of molecules involved in fatty acid oxidation such as acyl-CoA oxidase, and molecules involved in energy dissipation such as uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 and increased fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle of gAd Tg ob/ob mice. Moreover, despite similar plasma glucose and lipid levels on an apoE-deficient background, gAd Tg apoE-deficient mice showed amelioration of atherosclerosis, which was associated with decreased expression of class A scavenger receptor and tumor necrosis factor alpha. This is the first demonstration that globular adiponectin can protect against atherosclerosis in vivo. In conclusion, replenishment of globular adiponectin may provide a novel treatment modality for both type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis.  相似文献
3.
By using antibodies raised against a portion of N terminus of 40-kDa kinase (Kobayashi, T., Nakamura, S., Taniguchi, T., and Yamamura, H. (1990) Eur. J. Biochem. 188, 535-540), not only 40-kDa protein but also 72-kDa protein were detected on immunoblot analysis of porcine spleen homogenate. In splenocytes preparation, the antibodies could immunoprecipitate protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the 72-kDa protein but not detect the 40-kDa protein even on immunoblot. After incubation of crude spleen homogenate at 37 degrees C with or without various protease inhibitors, immunoblot analysis revealed proteolytic breakdown of the 72-kDa protein to 40-kDa fragment. Next, using oligonucleotides designed according to partially sequenced information of the 40-kDa kinase as a probe, we have isolated a clone containing entire coding sequence for the 40-kDa kinase from a porcine spleen cDNA library. This clone had a 1884-base-pair-long open reading frame encoding 628-amino-acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 71,618. The deduced amino acid sequence did not contain a ligand binding or membrane spanning region but did a well-conserved protein-tyrosine kinase domain and two src homology region 2 domains. The sequences of these domains showed 30-40% identity to those of other protein-tyrosine kinases, but those of remaining parts were quite unique. From these results, we concluded that the 40-kDa kinase was generated by proteolysis from the 72-kDa holoprotein which was a new member of nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase so far reported. We therefore designated this gene as syk after spleen tyrosine kinase.  相似文献
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5.
Structure and function of Syk protein-tyrosine kinase   总被引:31,自引:0,他引:31  
Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk contains 2 Src homology 2 (SH2) domains in tandem and multiple autophosphorylation sites. Syk is activated upon binding of tandem SH2 domains to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activating motif (ITAM) and plays an essential role in lymphocyte development and activation of immune cells. Syk is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins which regulate important pathways leading from the receptor, such as Ca(2+) mobilization and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Recent findings reveal that expression of Syk appears to be involved in a wide variety of cellular functions and pathogenesis of malignant cancer. These observations have demonstrated that Syk is a key molecule that controls multiple physiological functions in cells.  相似文献
6.
We examined the promoter activity of the 1.3-kb chicken beta-actin gene sequence located between the 5' flanking region and the proximal region of the second exon. This promoter region showed higher promoter activity than the simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoter or the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) long terminal repeat (LTR) as assayed by transient lacZ gene expression in mouse L cells. Furthermore, replacement of the 3' splice sequence in this promoter by that derived from the rabbit beta-globin gene resulted in a approximately 2.5-fold enhancement in the synthesis of beta-galactosidase (beta Gal). Introduction of the SV40 origin of DNA replication (ori) into the vector carrying this hybrid promoter, which we designate the AG promoter, markedly enhanced the production of beta Gal in an SV40 T antigen-producing cell, BMT10. We have constructed a useful vector containing the strong AG promoter, several unique restriction sites, a SV40 polyadenylation signal and the SV40 ori for transient expression of cDNA in BMT10 or COS cells. We demonstrate the use of this vector for efficient production of interleukin-5 in BMT10 cells.  相似文献
7.
A stromal cell clone, ST2, which can support both myelopoiesis and B lymphopoiesis of adult bone marrow was used as an in vitro microenvironment for investigating the ontogeny of the B cell progenitor in murine embryos. The B cell progenitor clonable on an ST2 layer first become detectable in the embryonal body rather than in the yolk sac around day 9.5 of gestation. As soon as it develops in the embryo, it enters the blood circulation and becomes detectable both in the developing fetal liver and the yolk sac of the 10 day embryo. On the other hand, mast cell and polymorphonuclear cell progenitors, which are also generated on the ST2 layer, develop first in the yolk sac and migrate to the fetal liver around day 10-11 of gestation. At the late stage of embryonal development, day 15-16 of gestation, the B cell progenitor enters the femur as vascularization of the femur starts. These results suggest that the localization of the committed stem cells for various hemopoietic cell lineages differs in the early embryo, although the localization of the pluripotent stem cells is yet to be determined.  相似文献
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9.
The proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic B cells (B-CLL cells) with anti-Ig and T cell-derived helper factors are described. Stimulation of B-CLL cells with anti-Ig and T helper factors could induce proliferation as well as differentiation into IgM- and IgG-producing cells. Neither anti-Ig nor T helper factors alone could induce any proliferation and/or differentiation of B-CLL cells. Not only whole molecules of anti-Ig but also F(ab')2 fragments could induce proliferation and differentiation of B-CLL cells in the presence of T helper factors, but monovalent Fab' fragments were not effective. Induction of both IgM and IgG with the same idiotype was confirmed by immunofluorescent and SDS-PAGE analysis. By employing an IL 2-dependent cytotoxic T cell line and a TRF-responsive B cell line, T cell factors were separated into a fraction with IL2 activity but no TRF activity and a fraction with TRF activity but no IL 2 activity by chromatofocusing. Anti-Ig and IL 2 fraction could induce proliferation of B-CLL cells, but TRF fraction was not effective for the induction of proliferation in anti-IG-stimulated cells. For IgM and IgG production, anti-Ig and both IL 2 and TRF fractions were required. Depletion of IL 2 fraction in the first 2 days' culture inhibited Ig production, whereas the absence of TRF fraction in the first 2 days did not show any inhibitory effect on Ig production.  相似文献
10.
We present here an analysis of cardiovascular and pharyngeal arch development in mouse embryos hypomorphic for Fgf8. Previously, we have described the generation of Fgf8 compound heterozygous (Fgf8(neo/-)) embryos. Although early analysis demonstrated that some of these embryos have abnormal left-right (LR) axis specification and cardiac looping reversals, the number and type of cardiac defects present at term suggested an additional role for Fgf8 in cardiovascular development. Most Fgf8(neo/-) mutant embryos survive to term with abnormal cardiovascular patterning, including outflow tract, arch artery and intracardiac defects. In addition, these mutants have hypoplastic pharyngeal arches, small or absent thymus and abnormal craniofacial development. Neural crest cells (NCCs) populate the pharyngeal arches and contribute to many structures of the face, neck and cardiovascular system, suggesting that Fgf8 may be required for NCC development. Fgf8 is expressed within the developing pharyngeal arch ectoderm and endoderm during NCC migration through the arches. Analysis of NCC development in Fgf8(neo/-) mutant embryos demonstrates that NCCs are specified and migrate, but undergo cell death in areas both adjacent and distal to where Fgf8 is normally expressed. This study defines the cardiovascular defects present in Fgf8 mutants and supports a role for Fgf8 in development of all the pharyngeal arches and in NCC survival.  相似文献
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