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1.
M Orita  Y Suzuki  T Sekiya  K Hayashi 《Genomics》1989,5(4):874-879
We report a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of base changes in given sequences of genomic DNA. This technique is based on the facts that specific regions of genomic sequences can be efficently labeled and amplified simultaneously by using labeled substrates in the polymerase chain reaction and that in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, the electrophoretic mobility of single-stranded nucleic acid depends not only on its size but also on its sequence. The process does not involve restriction enzyme digestion, blotting, or hybridization to probes. We found that most single base changes in up to 200-base fragments could be detected as mobility shifts. RAS oncogene activation was detected by this technique. We also show that the interspersed repetitive sequences of human, Alu repeats are highly polymorphic.  相似文献
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Studies were performed to attempt to define the T cell subset responsible for resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. A temperature-sensitive mutant (ts-4) strain of T. gondii was used for immunization because it causes infection but does not persist in the host. Immunization with this strain induced marked resistance against lethal challenge infection with virulent strains of T. gondii in mice. The resistance could be transferred to normal recipient mice by i.v. injection of spleen cells from ts-4-immunized mice. Marked inhibition of cyst formation in the recipient mice was also noted. The protective activity of immune spleen cells was removed by pretreatment of the spleen cells with anti-Thy-1.2 and C, indicating that T cells are responsible for the observed protection. Pretreatment of immune spleen cells with anti-Lyt-2.2 and C completely ablated their protective effect; pretreatment with anti-Lyt-1.2 or anti-L3T4 and C had lesser effects on their ability to transfer resistance. The effect of anti-Lyt-1.2 was the same as that obtained with anti-L3T4. This suggested that one T cell subset that is partially responsible for protection has both Lyt-1.2 and L3T4 markers on the cell surface. These results indicate that there are substantial roles for both the Lyt-2+ and Lyt-1+, L3T4 T cell subsets in dual regulation of resistance against toxoplasma infection and that Lyt-2+ T cells are the principal mediator of the resistance.  相似文献
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The genes for silk fibroin in Bombyx mori   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
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In macroautophagy, cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation via autophagosomes that are formed by closure of cup-shaped isolation membranes. However, how the isolation membranes are formed is poorly understood. We recently found in yeast that a novel ubiquitin-like system, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugation system, is essential for autophagy. Here we show that mouse Apg12-Apg5 conjugate localizes to the isolation membranes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Using green fluorescent protein-tagged Apg5, we revealed that the cup-shaped isolation membrane is developed from a small crescent-shaped compartment. Apg5 localizes on the isolation membrane throughout its elongation process. To examine the role of Apg5, we generated Apg5-deficient embryonic stem cells, which showed defects in autophagosome formation. The covalent modification of Apg5 with Apg12 is not required for its membrane targeting, but is essential for involvement of Apg5 in elongation of the isolation membranes. We also show that Apg12-Apg5 is required for targeting of a mammalian Aut7/Apg8 homologue, LC3, to the isolation membranes. These results suggest that the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate plays essential roles in isolation membrane development.  相似文献
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The importance of endogenous IFN-gamma for prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis was studied in mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii by using a mAb to this lymphokine. Control mice chronically infected with the ME49 strain that received saline or normal IgG had slight inflammation in their brains whereas those that received the mAb developed severe encephalitis. In contrast to control mice, the mAb-treated mice had many areas of acute focal inflammation and infiltration of large numbers of inflammatory cells in the meninges and parenchyma of their brains. In the areas of acute focal inflammation, tachyzoites and Toxoplasma Ag were demonstrated by immunoperoxidase staining with the use of rabbit anti-Toxoplasma antibody, suggesting that the focal inflammation was induced by Toxoplasma organisms. Acute inflammation was also observed around cysts of Toxoplasma. Immunohistologic staining revealed tachyzoites and Toxoplasma Ag surrounding the periphery of these cysts suggesting cyst disruption had occurred. Mice treated with mAb against IFN-gamma had five times the numbers of cysts in their brains as did control mice. These results clearly indicate that endogenous IFN-gamma plays a significant and important role in prevention of encephalitis in mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma. The mAb-treated mice had the same Toxoplasma antibody titers and the same degree of macrophage killing of Toxoplasma as did untreated controls. These results suggest that IFN-gamma may have a direct role in preventing cyst rupture and toxoplasmic encephalitis.  相似文献
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Organization of rRNA genes in Mycobacterium bovis BCG.   总被引:24,自引:9,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
The number of rRNA genes in Mycobacterium bovis BCG was examined by Southern hybridization of end-labeled 5S, 16S, and 23S rRNAs with BamHI, PstI, and SalI digests of M. bovis BCG DNA. Each RNA probe gave only one radioactive band with three kinds of DNA digest. These results suggest that M. bovis BCG chromosomes may carry only a minimum set of rRNA genes. Hybridization of randomly labeled rRNAs with BamHI, PstI, SalI, BglII, and PvuII digests of DNA from the same organism supported these conclusions. The 6.4-kilobase-pair SalI fragment containing the entire structural genes for both 16S and 23S rRNAs was cloned into pBR322. The cloned fragment was characterized by restriction endonuclease mapping, DNA-RNA hybridization analysis, and the R-loop technique. The results indicated that the fragments contained rRNA genes in the following order: 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA genes. No tRNA gene was detected in the spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes, but one was found downstream of the 23S rRNA and 5S rRNA genes.  相似文献
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A new technique is described for amplifying individual alleles in a mixture of two or more alleles by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine their nucleotide sequence. This technique involves amplifying and separating target sequences by the PCR-mediated single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method, isolating each polymorphic DNA strand, and amplifying it by a second-stage PCR for its sequence determination. By this technique, the sequence of a minor constituent (approximately 3%) can be determined accurately.  相似文献
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