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1.
A human monoclonal antibody designated 15e is reactive with the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of multiple isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antibody 15e also neutralizes HIV-1 with broad specificity and blocks gp120 binding to CD4. Characterization of the 15e epitope shows that it is conformation dependent and is distinct from previously recognized functional domains of gp120, suggesting that this epitope represents a novel site important for HIV-1 neutralization and CD4 binding. These findings have implications for the development of a vaccine for AIDS.  相似文献
2.
A panel of seven monoclonal antibodies against the relatively conserved CD4-binding domain on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 was generated by immunizing mice with purified gp120. These monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with gp120 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots (immunoblots). By using synthetic peptides as antigens in the immunosorbent assay, the epitopes of these seven monoclonal antibodies were mapped to amino acid residues 423 to 437 of gp120. Further studies with radioimmunoprecipitation assays showed that they cross-reacted with both gp120 and gp160 of diverse HIV-1 isolates (HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, HTLV-IIIAL, and HTLV-IIIWMJ). They also bound specifically to H9 cells infected with HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, HTLV-IIIAL, HTLV-IIIZ84, and HTLV-IIIZ34 in indirect immunofluorescence studies. In addition, they blocked effectively the binding of HIV-1 to CD4+ C8166 cells. Despite the similarity of these properties, the monoclonal antibodies differed in neutralizing activity against HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, and HTLV-IIIAL, as demonstrated in both syncytium-forming assays and infectivity assays. Our findings suggest that these group-specific monoclonal antibodies to the putative CD4-binding domain on gp120 are potential candidates for development of therapeutic agents against acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome.  相似文献
3.
X L Li  T Moudgil  H V Vinters    D D Ho 《Journal of virology》1990,64(3):1383-1387
One neuronal cell line (SK-N-MC) was found to be susceptible to productive infection by multiple isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Characterization of SK-N-MC cells showed that these cells are neuroectodermal in origin in that they express dopamine hydroxylase, catecholamines, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments. Despite their susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, SK-N-MC cells had no detectable CD4 and this infection was not blocked by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (OKT4A, Leu3A) or recombinant soluble CD4. These experiments demonstrated that certain cells of neuroectodermal origin are susceptible to infection in vitro by HIV-1 via a CD4-independent mechanism.  相似文献
4.
Five hepatoma cell lines, including CZHC/8571, PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B, HepG2, and HUH7, were inoculated with three diverse isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Productive infection was noted in all hepatoma cell lines, and expression of viral p24 antigen lasted for over 3 months, but its level decreased in proportion to the number of viable cells. HIV-1 antigens were also found in the cells by immunohistochemical staining and radioimmunoprecipitation assay, as were viral RNA by in situ hybridization and HIV-1-like particles by electron microscopy. Virus yield assays were also positive on supernatant fluids collected from hepatoma cultures inoculated with HIV-1. Despite their susceptibility to infection, all five hepatoma cell lines were negative for CD4 by immunofluorescence and for CD4 mRNA by slot-blot hybridization. In addition, HIV-1 infection of hepatoma cell lines was not blocked by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody or soluble CD4. Together, these findings clearly demonstrate that all five hepatoma cell lines were susceptible to productive infection by HIV-1 in vitro via a CD4-independent mechanism.  相似文献
5.
采用放射性配基结合法,测定大鼠全脑缺血后海马细胞膜腺苷(adenosine,ADO)受体数量及亲和力的变化,以探讨其与脑缺血耐受形成之间的关系。发现缺血6min即可导致海马组织明显的神经元延迟性死亡(delayed neuron  相似文献
6.
Liu Y  Zhu YG  Chen BD  Christie P  Li XL 《Mycorrhiza》2005,15(3):187-192
We report for the first time some effects of colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) on the biomass and arsenate uptake of an As hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata. Two arsenic levels (0 and 300 mg As kg–1) were applied to an already contaminated soil in pots with two compartments for plant and hyphal growth in a glasshouse experiment. Arsenic application had little or no effect on mycorrhizal colonization, which was about 50% of root length. Mycorrhizal colonization increased frond dry matter yield, lowered the root/frond weight ratio, and decreased frond As concentration by 33–38%. Nevertheless, transfer of As to fronds showed a 43% increase with mycorrhizal colonization at the higher soil As level. Frond As concentrations reached about 1.6 g kg–1 (dry matter basis) in non-mycorrhizal plants in the As-amended soil. Mycorrhizal colonization elevated root P concentration at both soil As levels and mycorrhizal plants had higher P/As ratios in both fronds and roots than did non-mycorrhizal controls.  相似文献
7.
8.
Shi ZY  Feng G  Christie P  Li XL 《Mycorrhiza》2006,16(4):269-275
A survey was made of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of 73 spring ephemeral plant species that grow in the desert ecosystem of Junggar Basin, northwest China. The proportion of AM colonization ranged from 7 to 73% with a mean value of 30%. A total of 65 plant species studied were AM with coils/arbuscules or vesicles and the remaining eight species were possibly AM with no coils/arbuscules or vesicles but with fungal mycelia in the root cortex. AM fungal spores were isolated from rhizosphere samples of all 73 plant species and identified. The mean spore density was 22 per 20 ml of air-dried soil, ranging from 0 to 120. Colonization and spore density of perennials were slightly higher than of annuals and varied among different plant families. A total of 603 AM fungal spore (or sporocarp) specimens were isolated belonging to six genera, Acaulospora, Archaeopora, Entrophospora, Glomus, Paraglomus, and Scutellospora; Glomus was the dominant genus. We conclude that spring ephemerals may be highly dependent on AM associations for survival in the very infertile and arid soils of this desert ecosystem.Electronic supplementary material Supplementary material is available for this article at  相似文献
9.
10.
The cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic complex of Clostridium thermocellum, termed cellulosome, consists of up to 26 polypeptides, of which at least 17 have been sequenced. They include 12 cellulases, 3 xylanases, 1 lichenase, and CipA, a scaffolding polypeptide. We report here a new cellulase gene, celK, coding for CelK, a 98-kDa major component of the cellulosome. The gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,685 nucleotides coding for a polypeptide of 895 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 100,552 Da. A signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues is cut off during secretion, resulting in a mature enzyme of 97,572 Da. The nucleotide sequence is highly similar to that of cbhA (V. V. Zverlov et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:3091-3099, 1998), having an ORF of 3,690 bp coding for the 1,230-amino-acid-residue CbhA of the same bacterium. Homologous regions of the two genes are 86.5 and 84.3% identical without deletion or insertion on the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Both have domain structures consisting of a signal peptide, a family IV cellulose binding domain (CBD), a family 9 glycosyl hydrolase domain, and a dockerin domain. A striking distinction between the two polypeptides is that there is a 330-amino-acid insertion in CbhA between the catalytic domain and the dockerin domain containing a fibronectin type 3-like domain and family III CBD. This insertion, missing in CelK, is responsible for the size difference between CelK and CbhA. Upstream and downstream flanking sequences of the two genes show no homology. The data indicate that celK and cbhA in the genome of C. thermocellum have evolved through gene duplication and recombination of domain coding sequences. celK without a dockerin domain was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima at 6.0 and 65 degrees C, respectively. It hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside with a Km and a Vmax of 1.67 microM and 15.1 U/mg, respectively. Cellobiose was a strong inhibitor of CelK activity, with a Ki of 0.29 mM. The enzyme was thermostable, after 200 h of incubation at 60 degrees C, 97% of the original activity remained. Properties of the enzyme indicated that it is a cellobiohydrolase.  相似文献
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