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1.
Soil respiration and the global carbon cycle   总被引:135,自引:7,他引:128  
Soil respiration is the primary path by which CO2fixed by land plants returns to the atmosphere. Estimated at approximately 75 × 1015gC/yr, this large natural flux is likely to increase due changes in the Earth's condition. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief scientific review for policymakers who are concerned that changes in soil respiration may contribute to the rise in CO2in Earth's atmosphere. Rising concentrations of CO2in the atmosphere will increase the flux of CO2from soils, while simultaneously leaving a greater store of carbon in the soil. Traditional tillage cultivation and rising temperature increase the flux of CO2from soils without increasing the stock of soil organic matter. Increasing deposition of nitrogen from the atmosphere may lead to the sequestration of carbon in vegetation and soils. The response of the land biosphere to simultaneous changes in all of these factors is unknown, but a large increase in the soil carbon pool seems unlikely to moderate the rise in atmospheric CO2during the next century.  相似文献
2.
Plant-soil Interactions in Deserts   总被引:38,自引:6,他引:32  
Geostatistical analyses show that the distribution of soil N, P and K is strongly associated with the presence of shrubs in desert habitats. Shrubs concentrate the biogeochemical cycle of these elements in islands of fertility that are localized beneath their canopies, while adjacent barren, intershrub spaces are comparatively devoid of biotic activity. Both physical and biological processes are involved in the formation of shrub islands. Losses of semiarid grassland in favor of invading shrubs initiate these changes in the distribution of soil nutrients, which may promote the further invasion and persistence of shrubs and cause potential feedbacks between desertification and the Earth's climate system.  相似文献
3.
Nitrogen loss from deserts in the southwestern United States   总被引:18,自引:6,他引:12  
A lower limit for nitrogen loss from desert ecosystems in the southwestern United States was estimated by comparing nitrogen inputs to the amount of nitrogen stored in desert soils and vegetation. Atmospheric input of nitrogen for the last 10 000 years was conservatively estimated to be 2.99 kg N/m2. The amount of nitrogen stored in desert soils was calculated to be 0.604 kg N/m3 using extant data from 212 profiles located in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. The average amount of nitrogen stored in desert vegetation is approximately 0.036 kg N/m2.Desert conditions have existed in the southwestern United States throughout the last 10 000 years. Under such conditions, vertical leaching of nitrogen below a depth of 1 m is small (ca. 0.028 kg N/m2 over 10 000 years) and streamflow losses of nitrogen from the desert landscape are negligible. Thus, the discrepancy found between nitrogen input and storage represents the amount of nitrogen lost to the atmosphere during the last 10 000 years. Loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere was calculated to be 2.32 kg N/m2, which is 77% of the atmospheric inputs.Processes resulting in nitrogen loss to the atmosphere from desert ecosystems include wind erosion, ammonia volatilization, nitrification, and denitrification. Our analysis cannot assess the relative importance of these processes, but each is worthy of future research efforts.  相似文献
4.
Rainfall simulation experiments were performed in areas of semiarid grassland (Bouteloua eriopoda) and arid shrubland (Larrea tridentata) in the Chihuahuan desert of New Mexico. The objective was to compare the runoff of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from these habitats to assess whether losses of soil nutrients are associated with the invasion of grasslands by shrubs. Runoff losses from grass- and shrub-dominated plots were similar, and much less than from bare plots located in the shrubland. Weighted average concentrations of total dissolved N compounds in runoff were greatest in the grassland (1.72 mg/1) and lowest in bare plots in the shrubland (0.55 mg/1). More than half of the N transported in runoff was carried in dissolved organic compounds. In grassland and shrub plots, the total N loss was highly correlated to the total volume of discharge. We estimate that the total annual loss of N in runoff is 0.25 kg/ha/yr in grasslands and 0.43 kg/ha/yr in shrublands — consistent with the depletion of soil N during desertification of these habitats. Losses of P from both habitats were very small.  相似文献
5.
We examined the 10-day response of soil microbial biomass-N to additions of carbon (dextrose) and nitrogen (NH4NO3) to water-amended soils in a factorial experiment in four plant communities of the Chihuahuan desert of New Mexico (U.S.A.). In each site, microbial biomass-N and soil carbohydrates increased and extractable soil N decreased in response to watering alone. Fertilization with N increased microbial biomass-N in grassland soils; whereas, fertilization with C increased microbial biomass-N and decreased extractable N and P in all communities dominated by shrubs, which have invaded large areas of grassland in the Chihuahuan desert during the last 100 years. Our results support the hypothesis that the control of soil microbial biomass shifts from N to C when the ratio of C to N decreases during desertification.  相似文献
6.
7.
Forest carbon balance under elevated CO2   总被引:10,自引:2,他引:8  
Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology was used to expose a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest to elevated atmospheric CO2 (ambient + 200 µl l-1). After 4 years, basal area of pine trees was 9.2% larger in elevated than in ambient CO2 plots. During the first 3 years the growth rate of pine was stimulated by ~26%. In the fourth year this stimulation declined to 23%. The average net ecosystem production (NEP) in the ambient plots was 428 gC m-2 year-1, indicating that the forest was a net sink for atmospheric CO2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulated NEP by 41%. This increase was primarily an increase in plant biomass increment (57%), and secondarily increased accumulation of carbon in the forest floor (35%) and fine root increment (8%). Net primary production (NPP) was stimulated by 27%, driven primarily by increases in the growth rate of the pines. Total heterotrophic respiration (Rh) increased by 165%, but total autotrophic respiration (Ra) was unaffected. Gross primary production was increased by 18%. The largest uncertainties in the carbon budget remain in separating belowground heterotrophic (soil microbes) and autotrophic (root) respiration. If applied to temperate forests globally, the increase in NEP that we measured would fix less than 10% of the anthropogenic CO2 projected to be released into the atmosphere in the year 2050. This may represent an upper limit because rising global temperatures, land disturbance, and heterotrophic decomposition of woody tissues will ultimately cause an increased flux of carbon back to the atmosphere.  相似文献
8.
Microbial biomass nitrogen was measured in unamended (dry) and wetted soils in ten shrubland and grassland communities of the Chihuahuan desert, southern New Mexico, by the fumigation-extraction method. Microbial biomass-N in dry soils was undetectable. Average microbial biomass-N in wetted soils among all plant communities was 15.3 μg g-1 soil. Highest values were found in the communities with the lowest topographic positions, and the minimum values were detected in the spaces between shrubs. Microbial biomass was positively and significantly correlated to soil organic carbon and extractable nitrogen (NH4 + + NO3 -). In a stepwise multiple regression, organic carbon and extractable nitrogen accounted for 40.9 and 5.6%, respectively, of the variance in microbial biomass-N among all the samples. Among communities, the soil microbial biomass was affected by the ratio of carbon to extractable nitrogen. Our results suggest a succession in the control of microbial biomass from nitrogen to carbon when the ratio of carbon to nitrogen decreases during desertification.  相似文献
9.
A global budget for atmospheric NH3   总被引:8,自引:3,他引:5  
We provide an assessment of the global sources of NH3 in the atmosphere, which indicates an annual flux of about 75 Tg of N as NH3. The emissions from land are dominated by the release of NH3 during the hydrolysis of urea from the urine of domestic animals (32 TgN/yr) and by emanations from soils in unmanaged ecosystems (10 TgN/yr) and from fertilized agricultural soils (9 TgN/yr). Emissions from the sea surface may approach 13 TgN/yr. The total annual source of NH3 is in reasonable agreement with estimates of global NH 4 + deposition from the atmosphere, the major fate of atmospheric NH3. As an alkaline atmospheric species, NH3 emitted to the atmosphere each year can neutralize only about 32% of the annual production of H+ in the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources.  相似文献
10.
Spatial variations in nitrogen availability were studied in a desert community codominated byLarrea tridentata (DC.) Cov. andProsopis glandulosa Torr. Measurements of natural 15N values in tissues suggested thatProsopis obtains approximately half of its nitrogen through direct symbiotic fixation. Soils were collected under 1)Prosopis shrubs, 2)Larrea shrubs 2 m fromProsopis (LP), and 3)Larrea 2 m from otherLarrea but> 5 m from the nearestProsopis (LL).Prosopis soils showed significantly higher rates of nitrogen mineralization than LL soils in both A and B horizons. Rates of mineralization in LP soils were significantly higher than rates in LL soils only in the B horizon and were not significantly different from rates inProsopis soils. Leaf nitrogen concentrations were significantly higher in LP shrubs (2.06%) than in LL shrubs (1.78%), although 15N values did not differ between the two shrub types. Nitrogen concentrations inPerezia nana Gray, a perennial herb, were greater in plants underProsopis shrubs (2.09%) than under LP shrubs (1.93%) or LL shrubs (1.67%). Despite apparent differences in nitrogen availability, biomass ofLarrea and density ofPerezia did not differ significantly among these sites.  相似文献
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