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1.
Left ventricular remodeling is a major cause of progressive heart failure and death after myocardial infarction. Although neoangiogenesis within the infarcted tissue is an integral component of the remodeling process, the capillary network is unable to support the greater demands of the hypertrophied myocardium, resulting in progressive loss of viable tissue, infarct extension and fibrous replacement. Here we show that bone marrow from adult humans contains endothelial precursors with phenotypic and functional characteristics of embryonic hemangioblasts, and that these can be used to directly induce new blood vessel formation in the infarct-bed (vasculogenesis) and proliferation of preexisting vasculature (angiogenesis) after experimental myocardial infarction. The neoangiogenesis resulted in decreased apoptosis of hypertrophied myocytes in the peri-infarct region, long-term salvage and survival of viable myocardium, reduction in collagen deposition and sustained improvement in cardiac function. The use of cytokine-mobilized autologous human bone-marrow-derived angioblasts for revascularization of infarcted myocardium (alone or in conjunction with currently used therapies) has the potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality associated with left ventricular remodeling.  相似文献
2.
TGF beta signals through a heteromeric protein kinase receptor complex.   总被引:87,自引:0,他引:87  
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) binds with high affinity to the type II receptor, a transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase domain. We show that the type II receptor requires both its kinase activity and association with another TGF beta-binding protein, the type I receptor, to signal growth inhibition and early gene responses. Receptors I and II associate as interdependent components of a heteromeric complex: receptor I requires receptor II to bind TGF beta, and receptor II requires receptor I to signal. This mode of operation points to fundamental differences between this receptor and the protein-tyrosine kinase cytokine receptors.  相似文献
3.
Tumors require ongoing angiogenesis to support their growth. Inhibition of angiogenesis by production of angiostatic factors should be a viable approach for cancer gene therapy. Endostatin, a potent angiostatic factor, was expressed in mouse muscle and secreted into the bloodstream for up to 2 weeks after a single intramuscular administration of the endostatin gene. The biological activity of the expressed endostatin was demonstrated by its ability to inhibit systemic angiogenesis. Moreover, the sustained production of endostatin by intramuscular gene therapy inhibited both the growth of primary tumors and the development of metastatic lesions. These results demonstrate the potential utility of intramuscular delivery of an antiangiogenic gene for treatment of disseminated cancers.  相似文献
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5.
Survey of plant short tandem DNA repeats   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
Length variations in simple sequence tandem repeats are being given increased attention in plant genetics. Some short tandem repeats (STRs) from a few plant species, mainly those at the dinucleotide level, have been demonstrated to show polymorphisms and Mendelian inheritance. In the study reported here a search for all of the possible STRs ranging from mononucleotide up to tetranucleotide repeats was carried out on EMBL and GenBank DNA sequence databases of 3026 kb nuclear DNA and 1268 kb organelle DNA in 54 and 28 plant species (plus algae), respectively. An extreme rareness of STRs (4 STRs in 1268 kb DNA) was detected in organelle compared with nuclear DNA sequences. In nuclear DNA sequences, (AT)n sequences were the most abundant followed by (A)n · (T)n, (AG)n · (CT)n, (AAT)n · (ATT)n, (AAC)n · (GTT), (AGC)n · (GCT)n, (AAG)n · (CTT)n, (AATT)n · (TTAA)n, (AAAT)n · (ATTT)n and (AC)n · (GT)n sequences. A total of 130 STRs were found, including 49 (AT)n sequences in 31 species, giving an average of 1 STR every 23.3 kb and 1 (AT)n STR every 62 kb. An abundance comparable to that for the dinucleotide repeat was observed for the tri- and tetranucleotide repeats together. On average, there was 1 STR every 64.6 kb DNA in monocotyledons versus 1 every 21.2 kb DNA in dicotyledons. The fraction of STRs that contained G-C basepairs increased as the G+C contents went up from dicotyledons, monocotyledons to algae. While STRs of mono-, di- and tetranucleotide repeats were all located in non coding regions, 57% of the trinucleotide STRs containing G-C basepairs resided in coding regions.  相似文献
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7.
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is stimulated by insulin and a variety of growth factors, but its exact role in signal transduction remains unclear. We have used a novel, highly specific inhibitor of PT 3-kinase to dissect the role of this enzyme in insulin action. Treatment of intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes with LY294002 produced a dose-dependent inhibition of insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase (50% inhibitory concentration, 6 microM) with > 95% reduction in the levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate without changes in the levels of phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphate or its derivatives. In parallel, there was a complete inhibition of insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and activation of pp70 S6 kinase. Inhibition of PI 3-kinase also effectively blocked insulin- and serum-stimulated DNA synthesis and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by inhibiting translocation of GLUT 4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. By contrast, LY294002 had no effect on insulin stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase or pp90 S6 kinase. Thus, activation of PI 3-kinase plays a critical role in mammalian cells and is required for activation of pp70 S6 kinase and DNA synthesis and certain forms of intracellular vesicular trafficking but not mitogen-activated protein kinase or pp90 S6 kinase activation. These data suggest that PI 3-kinase is not only an important component but also a point of divergence in the insulin signaling network.  相似文献
8.
Three-dimensional structure of rotavirus   总被引:40,自引:0,他引:40  
9.
Murine leukemia virus (MuLV) codes for two precursors of the group-specific antigens, Pr65gag and Pr75gag, in vivo. While Pr65gag is the precursor to the virion structural proteins, Pr75gag undergoes glycosylation and is found on the surface of the infected cell as gp85gag, and it is thought to play a role in virus maturation and spread. Pr65gag synthesis starts at an AUG codon within a favourable initiation context (AAUAUGG at positions 618 to 624). The gp85gag start codon is upstream but its precise location is not known. To map the initiation codon of gp85gag, we used deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of the leader sequence of MuLV RNA and in vitro translation of the RNAs. Synthesis of the MuLV gp85gag protein appears to be initiated at a CUG codon located within a favourable context (ACCCUGG at positions 354 to 359 for Moloney-MuLV). The possible function of gp85gag was investigated by expressing Moloney-MuLV and Friend-MuLV proviral DNA and mutants deficient for gp85gag synthesis in mouse and rat cells. The results indicate that the gp85gag protein probably facilitates the spread of virus infection in tissue culture.  相似文献
10.
We have identified two phosphotyrosine-containing cellular proteins with relative molecular masses of 130,000 (pp130) and 110,000 (pp110) daltons in chicken embryo cells that coimmunoprecipitated with pp60v-src and activated forms of chicken pp60c-src (pp60(527)F). Most if not all of the tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of pp130 and pp110 could be immunoprecipitated from lysates with any of several src protein-specific monoclonal antibodies directed against at least three spatially distinct epitopes. Consequently, of the more than 15 prominent phosphoproteins detected on immunoblots with phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies, pp130 and pp110 were selectively removed by src protein-specific immunoprecipitation, and their presence in the immunoprecipitates appears to have been due to a direct interaction with activated src proteins. src protein variants that induce different morphological phenotypes were altered in their ability to form detergent-stable complexes with pp130 and pp110 or with pp110 alone. Mutant src proteins, defective for myristylation, showed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of and association with pp110. Expression of src variants with mutations in the A box (pp60dl92/527F) or B box (pp60dl155/527F) of the src homology region induced differences in phosphorylation of pp130 and pp110, as well as changes in their association with variant src proteins. Sequences within the B-box region appeared to be necessary for stable complex formation with pp130 and pp110 and may be involved in the interaction of activated src proteins with cellular substrates.  相似文献
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