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排序方式: 共有207条查询结果,搜索用时 62 毫秒
1.
Cerebral edema contributes significantly to morbidity and death associated with many common neurological disorders. However, current treatment options are limited to hyperosmolar agents and surgical decompression, therapies introduced more than 70 years ago. Here we show that mice deficient in aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a glial membrane water channel, have much better survival than wild-type mice in a model of brain edema caused by acute water intoxication. Brain tissue water content and swelling of pericapillary astrocytic foot processes in AQP4-deficient mice were significantly reduced. In another model of brain edema, focal ischemic stroke produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion, AQP4-deficient mice had improved neurological outcome. Cerebral edema, as measured by percentage of hemispheric enlargement at 24 h, was decreased by 35% in AQP4-deficient mice. These results implicate a key role for AQP4 in modulating brain water transport, and suggest that AQP4 inhibition may provide a new therapeutic option for reducing brain edema in a wide variety of cerebral disorders.  相似文献
2.
Unintegrated viral DNA was isolated via the Hirt procedure from mouse fibroblasts newly infected with Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) clone 201, a biologically cloned helper virus isolated from stocks of F-MuLV complex. A physical map of the unintegrated in vivo linear viral DNA was generated for several restriction endonucleases. The supercoiled viral DNA was digested with EcoRI, which cleaved the viral DNA at a unique site. The linearized viral DNA was then inserted into lambda gtWES.lambda B at the EcoRI site and cloned in an approved EK2 host. Eight independent lambda-mouse recombinants were identified as containing F-MuLV DNA inserts by hybridization with F-MuLV 32P-labeled complementary DNA. One of the F-MuLV DNA inserts was 9.1 kilobases (kb) and had the same restriction enzyme sites as the unintegrated linear F-MuLV DNA. Six inserts were 8.5 kb; each lacked a single copy of the terminally redundant sequences of the unintegrated linear viral DNA. One insert was 8.2 kb and contained a 0.9-kb deletion. After digestion with EcoRI, one recombinant DNA preparation containing an 8.5-kb insert was infectious for NIH 3T3 cells. Undigested recombinant DNA was not infectious. The infectivity of the EcoRI-digested DNA followed multihit kinetics, indicating that more than one molecule was required to register as an infectious unit. The virus isolated from this transfection (F-MuLV-57) was NB-ecotropic, helper-independent, and formed XC plaques. Inoculation of this virus into newborn NIH Swiss mice induced leukemia and splenomegaly in greater than 90% of animals within 3 to 4 weeks. The gross and microscopic abnormalities induced by F-MuLV clone 57 were identical to those seen with the original parent stocks of F-MuLV clone 201. These results indicate that this helper-independent F-MuLV can induce a rapid nonthymic leukemia in the absence of the spleen focus-forming virus.  相似文献
3.
Seven human immunodeficiency virus gag polypeptides were identified in the purified virus and in infected CD4+ lymphocytes by peptide mapping and limited amino acid sequencing of immune-purified proteins. Two gag polyproteins of 55,000 (p55) and 41,000 (p41) daltons were rapidly labeled and readily processed into the major internal gag proteins that were aligned within the gag open reading frame (ORF) as NH2-p16 (MA)-p24 (CA)-p9 (NC)-p7-COOH. The myristoylated p16 (matrix, MA) protein was processed from the myristoylated p55 gag precursor protein. The immunoreactivity of the p16 (MA) protein with region-specific gag antisera and the conservation of the N-terminal myristyl group of the p55 precursor protein in p16 (MA) confirmed its position as the N-terminal-most protein. The p9 (nucleocapsid, NC) protein was localized to residue 378 of the gag ORF, next to the C terminus of the p24/p25 (core antigen, CA) protein. The p9 protein had a repeating Cys residue containing motif which is found in the nucleic acid-binding Cys residue-containing proteins of retroviruses. The p24 (CA) protein, which was localized to residue 133 of the gag ORF, was apparently derived by C-terminal processing of an intermediate polypeptide, p25. Both the mature p24 (CA) and p16 (MA) proteins were phosphorylated at Ser residue(s). We also identified two forms of gag p41 species, one resulting from the C-terminal processing of p55 and the other originating either from N-terminal processing of p55 or from de novo synthesis.  相似文献
4.
Supercoiled Harvey sarcoma virus (Ha-SV) DNA was extracted from newly infected cells by the Hirt procedure, enriched by preparative agarose gel electrophoresis, and digested with EcoRI, which cleaved the viral DNA at a unique site. The linearized Ha-SV DNA was then inserted into lambda gtWESlambda B at the EcoRI site and cloned in an approved EK2 host. Ha-SV DNA inserts from six independently derived recombinant clones have been analyzed by restriction endonuclease digestion, molecular hybridization, electron microscopy, and infectivity. Four of the Ha-SV DNA inserts were identical, contained about 6.0 kilobase pairs (kbp), and comigrated in agarose gels with the infectious, unintegrated, linear Ha-SV DNA. One insert was approximately 0.65 kbp smaller (5.35 kbp) and one was approximately 0.65 kpb larger (6.65 kpb) than the 6.0 kpb inserts. R-looping with Ha-SV RNA revealed that the small (5.35 kbp) insert contained one copy of the Ha-SV RNA. Preliminary restriction endonuclease digestion of the recombinant DNAs suggested that the middle-size inserts contained a 0.65-kbp tandem duplication of sequences present only one in the small-size insert; this duplication corresponded to the 0.65-kpb terminal duplication of the unintegrated linear Ha-SV DNA. The large-size insert apparently contained a tandem triplication of these terminally located sequences. DNA of all three sized inserts induced foci in NIH 3T3 cells, and focus-forming activity could be rescued from the transformed cells by superinfection with helper virus. Infectivity followed single-hit kinetics, suggesting that the foci were induced by a single molecule.  相似文献
5.
We have identified a novel cDNA encoding a protein (named TX) with > 50% overall sequence identity with the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) and approximately 30% sequence identity with the ICE homologs NEDD-2/ICH-1L and CED-3. A computer homology model of TX was constructed based on the X-ray coordinates of the ICE crystal recently published. This model suggests that TX is a cysteine protease, with the P1 aspartic acid substrate specificity retained. Transfection experiments demonstrate that TX is a protease which is able to cleave itself and the p30 ICE precursor, but not to generate mature IL-1 beta from pro-IL-1 beta. In addition, this protein induces apoptosis in transfected COS cells. TX therefore delineates a new member of the growing Ice/ced-3 gene family coding for proteases with cytokine processing activity or involved in programmed cell death.  相似文献
6.
UR2 is a newly characterized avian sarcoma virus whose genome contains a unique sequence that is not related to the sequences of other avian sarcoma virus transforming genes thus far identified. This unique sequence, termed ros, is fused to part of the viral gag gene. The product of the fused gag-ros gene of UR2 is a protein of 68,000 daltons (P68) immunoprecipitable by antiserum against viral gag proteins. In vitro translation of viral RNA and in vivo pulse-chase experiments showed that P68 is not synthesized as a large precursor and that it is the only protein product encoded in the UR2 genome, suggesting that it is involved in cell transformation by UR2. In vivo, P68 was phosphorylated at both serine and tyrosine residues. Immunoprecipitates of P68 with anti-gag antisera had a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase activity that phosphorylated P68, rabbit immunoglobulin G in the immune complex, and alpha-casein. The phosphorylation by P68 was specific to tyrosine of the substrate proteins. P68 was phosphorylated in vitro at only one tyrosine site, and the tryptic phosphopeptide of in vitro-labeled P68 was different from those of Fujinami sarcoma virus P140 and avian sarcoma virus Y73-P90. A comparison of the protein kinases encoded by UR2, Rous sarcoma virus, Fujinami sarcoma virus, and avian sarcoma virus Y73 revealed that UR2-P68 protein kinase is distinct from the protein kinases encoded by those viruses by several criteria. Our results suggest that several different protein kinases encoded by viral transforming genes have the same functional specificity and cause essentially the same cellular alterations.  相似文献
7.
Role of mitochondria in toxic oxidative stress   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial oxidative damage have been implicated in the etiology of numerous common diseases. The critical mitochondrial events responsible for oxidative stress-mediated cell death (toxic oxidative stress), however, have yet to be defined. Several oxidative events implicated in toxic oxidative stress include alterations in mitochondrial lipids (e.g., cardiolipin), mitochondrial DNA, and mitochondrial proteins (eg. aconitase and uncoupling protein 2). Furthermore, recent findings indicate the enrichment of mitochondrial membranes with vitamin E protects cells against the toxic effects of oxidative stress. This review briefly summarizes the role of these mitochondrial events in toxic oxidative stress, including: 1) the protective role of mitochondrial vitamin E in toxic oxidative stress, 2) the role of mitochondrial DNA in toxic oxidative stress, 3) the interaction between cardiolipin and cytochrome c in mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis, 4) the role of mitochondrial aconitase in oxidative neurodegeneration, and 5) the role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.  相似文献
8.
9.
Two proviruses were cloned from EcoRI-digested DNA extracted from mink cells chronically infected with AKR mink cell focus-forming (MCF) 247 murine leukemia virus (MuLV), using a lambda phage host vector system. One cloned MuLV DNA fragment (designated MCF 1) contained sequences extending 6.8 kilobases from an EcoRI restriction site in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) to an EcoRI site located in the envelope (env) region and was indistinguishable by restriction endonuclease mapping for 5.1 kilobases (except for the EcoRI site in the LTR) from the 5' end of AKR ecotropic proviral DNA. The DNA segment extending from 5.1 to 6.8 kilobases contained several restriction sites that were not present in the AKR ecotropic provirus. A 0.5-kilobase DNA segment located at the 3' end of MCF 1 DNA contained sequences which hybridized to a xenotropic env-specific DNA probe but not to labeled ecotropic env-specific DNA. This dual character of MCF 1 proviral DNA was also confirmed by analyzing heteroduplex molecules by electron microscopy. The second cloned proviral DNA (designated MCF 2) was a 6.9-kilobase EcoRI DNA fragment which contained LTR sequences at each end and a 2.0-kilobase deletion encompassing most of the env region. The MCF 2 proviral DNA proved to be a useful reagent for detecting LTRs electron microscopically due to the presence of nonoverlapping, terminally located LTR sequences which effected its circularization with DNAs containing homologous LTR sequences. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of a 104-base-pair direct repeat in the LTR of MCF 2 DNA. In contrast, only a single copy of the reiterated component of the direct repeat was present in MCF 1 DNA.  相似文献
10.
By using low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization conditions and specific subgenomic segments of the AKR ecotropic provirus as probes, murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related sequences were detected in African green monkey (AGM) liver DNA. The MuLV-reactive segments present in restricted AGM DNA ranged from 1.9 kilobases (kb) to greater than 10 kb in size. On the basis of this finding, a 17-kb segment was cloned from a partial EcoRI AGM library in lambda Charon 4A which shared nearly 5 kb of homology with AKR ecotropic MuLV DNA. The MuLV-related sequences detected in restricted preparations of AGM DNA or present in the cloned monkey DNA reacted with probes mapping 2.0 to 7.0 kb from the 5' terminus of the AKR ecotropic provirus. The AGM clone also contained repeated sequences that flanked the MuLV-related segment. Labeled, subgenomic, MuLV-reactive segments of the monkey clone hybridized to multiple restriction fragments of AGM liver DNA, indicating the presence of several copies of the MuLV-related sequences.  相似文献
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