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1.
Basic local alignment search tool   总被引:1550,自引:0,他引:1550  
A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.  相似文献
2.
The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.  相似文献
3.
Optimal alignments in linear space   总被引:40,自引:0,他引:40  
Space, not time, is often the limiting factor when computingoptimal sequence alignments, and a number of recent papers inthe biology literature have proposed space-saving strategies.However, a 1975 computer science paper by Hirschberg presenteda method that is superior to the new proposals, both in theoryand in practice. The goal of this paper is to give Hirschberg'sidea the visibility it deserves by developing a linear-spaceversion of Gotoh's algorithm, which accommodates affine gappenalties. A portable C-software package implementing this algorithmis available on the BIONET free of charge. Received on October 14, 1987; accepted on December 19, 1987  相似文献
4.
Methods are presented for organizing and integrating DNA sequence data, restriction maps, and genetic maps for the same organism but from a variety of sources (databases, publications, personal communications). Proper software tools are essential for successful organization of such diverse data into an ordered, cohesive body of information, and a suite of novel software to support this endeavor is described. Though these tools automate much of the task, a variety of strategies is needed to cope with recalcitrant cases. We describe such strategies and illustrate their application with numerous examples. These strategies have allowed us to order, analyze, and display over one megabase of E. coli DNA sequence information. The integration task often exposes inconsistencies in the available data, perhaps caused by strain polymorphisms or human oversight, necessitating the application of sound biological judgment. The examples illustrate both the level of expertise required of the database curator and the knowledge gained as apparent inconsistencies are resolved. The software and mapping methods are applicable to the study of any genome for which a high resolution restriction map is available. They were developed to support a weakly coordinated sequencing effort involving many laboratories, but would also be useful for highly orchestrated sequencing projects.  相似文献
5.
We use the extensive published information describing the genome of Escherichia coli and new restriction map alignment software to align DNA sequence, genetic, and physical maps. Restriction map alignment software is used which considers restriction maps as strings analogous to DNA or protein sequences except that two values, enzyme name and DNA base address, are associated with each position on the string. The resulting alignments reveal a nearly linear relationship between the physical and genetic maps of the E. coli chromosome. Physical map comparisons with the 1976, 1980, and 1983 genetic maps demonstrate a better fit with the more recent maps. The results of these alignments are genomic kilobase coordinates, orientation and rank of the alignment that best fits the genetic data. A statistical measure based on extreme value distribution is applied to the alignments. Additional computer analyses allow us to estimate the accuracy of the published E. coli genomic restriction map, simulate rearrangements of the bacterial chromosome, and search for repetitive DNA. The procedures we used are general enough to be applicable to other genome mapping projects.  相似文献
6.
A greedy algorithm for aligning DNA sequences.   总被引:36,自引:0,他引:36  
For aligning DNA sequences that differ only by sequencing errors, or by equivalent errors from other sources, a greedy algorithm can be much faster than traditional dynamic programming approaches and yet produce an alignment that is guaranteed to be theoretically optimal. We introduce a new greedy alignment algorithm with particularly good performance and show that it computes the same alignment as does a certain dynamic programming algorithm, while executing over 10 times faster on appropriate data. An implementation of this algorithm is currently used in a program that assembles the UniGene database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information.  相似文献
7.
To examine the in vivo function of presenilin-1 (PS1), we selectively deleted the PS1 gene in excitatory neurons of the adult mouse forebrain. These conditional knockout mice were viable and grew normally, but they exhibited a pronounced deficiency in enrichment-induced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. This reduction in neurogenesis did not result in appreciable learning deficits, indicating that addition of new neurons is not required for memory formation. However, our postlearning enrichment experiments lead us to postulate that adult dentate neurogenesis may play a role in the periodic clearance of outdated hippocampal memory traces after cortical memory consolidation, thereby ensuring that the hippocampus is continuously available to process new memories. A chronic, abnormal clearance process in the hippocampus may conceivably lead to memory disorders in the mammalian brain.  相似文献
8.
We developed a technique to map the availability of sugars and amino acids along live roots in an intact soil-root matrix with native microbial soil flora and fauna present. It will allow us to study interactions between root exudates and soil microorganisms at the fine spatial scale necessary to evaluate mechanisms of nitrogen cycling in the rhizosphere. Erwinia herbicola 299R harboring a promoterless ice nucleation reporter gene, driven by either of two nutrient-responsive promoters, was used as a biosensor. Strain 299RTice exhibits tryptophan-dependent ice nucleation activity, while strain 299R(p61RYice) expresses ice nucleation activity proportional to sucrose concentration in its environment. Both biosensors exhibited up to 100-fold differences in ice nucleation activity in response to varying substrate abundance in culture. The biosensors were introduced into the rhizosphere of the annual grass Avena barbata and, as a control, into bulk soil. Neither strain exhibited significant ice nucleation activity in the bulk soil. Both tryptophan and sucrose were detected in the rhizosphere, but they showed different spatial patterns. Tryptophan was apparently most abundant in soil around roots 12 to 16 cm from the tip, while sucrose was most abundant in soil near the root tip. The largest numbers of bacteria (determined by acridine orange staining and direct microscopy) occurred near root sections with the highest apparent sucrose or tryptophan exudation. High sucrose availability at the root tip is consistent with leakage of photosynthate from immature, rapidly growing root tissues, while tryptophan loss from older root sections may result from lateral root perforation of the root epidermis.  相似文献
9.
10.
In response to environmental stress, the related RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR colocalize with poly(A)(+) RNA at cytoplasmic foci that resemble the stress granules (SGs) that harbor untranslated mRNAs in heat shocked plant cells (Nover et al. 1989; Nover et al. 1983; Scharf et al. 1998). The accumulation of untranslated mRNA at SGs is reversible in cells that recover from a sublethal stress, but irreversible in cells subjected to a lethal stress. We have found that the assembly of TIA-1/R(+) SGs is initiated by the phosphorylation of eIF-2alpha. A phosphomimetic eIF-2alpha mutant (S51D) induces the assembly of SGs, whereas a nonphosphorylatable eIF-2alpha mutant (S51A) prevents the assembly of SGs. The ability of a TIA-1 mutant lacking its RNA-binding domains to function as a transdominant inhibitor of SG formation suggests that this RNA-binding protein acts downstream of the phosphorylation of eIF-2alpha to promote the sequestration of untranslated mRNAs at SGs. The assembly and disassembly of SGs could regulate the duration of stress- induced translational arrest in cells recovering from environmental stress.  相似文献
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