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A technique is presented which enables one to measure the extent to which a protein enters and accumulates in the nucleus of the frog oocyte. In this method, the protein, labeled with 125-I, is microinjected into the oocyte. After incubation, the oocyte is manually enucleated and the radioactivity in the nucleus and cytoplasm is determined. Using this technique, proteins lighter than 20,000 daltons were found to enter the nucleus and completely equilibrate between the nucleus and cytoplasm within 24 h. The entry of proteins heavier than 69,000 daltons was severely hindered. Histones and histone fractions entered as quickly as other small proteins, but, in contrast to these proteins, they accumulated in the nucleus to different extents, depending on the total amount of histone injected into the oocyte and the identity of the histone. Evidence is presented that histone fractions compete with each other for accumulation in the nucleus.  相似文献
3.
Histones and their modifications   总被引:39,自引:0,他引:39  
4.
Efficient fluorography of 3H and 14C on thin layers.   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
5.
Megabase chromatin domains involved in DNA double-strand breaks in vivo.   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
The loss of chromosomal integrity from DNA double-strand breaks introduced into mammalian cells by ionizing radiation results in the specific phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine residue 139, yielding a specific modified form named gamma-H2AX. An antibody prepared to the unique region of human gamma-H2AX shows that H2AX homologues are phosphorylated not only in irradiated mammalian cells but also in irradiated cells from other species, including Xenopus laevis, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The antibody reveals that gamma-H2AX appears as discrete nuclear foci within 1 min after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation. The numbers of these foci are comparable to the numbers of induced DNA double-strand breaks. When DNA double-strand breaks are introduced into specific partial nuclear volumes of cells by means of a pulsed microbeam laser, gamma-H2AX foci form at these sites. In mitotic cells from cultures exposed to nonlethal amounts of ionizing radiation, gamma-H2AX foci form band-like structures on chromosome arms and on the end of broken arms. These results offer direct visual confirmation that gamma-H2AX forms en masse at chromosomal sites of DNA double-strand breaks. The results further suggest the possible existence of units of higher order chromatin structure involved in monitoring DNA integrity.  相似文献
6.
Histone 2B can be modified by the attachment of ubiquitin.   总被引:26,自引:2,他引:24       下载免费PDF全文
Histone 2B in mouse and man can be modified by the post-translational addition of ubiquitin. In mouse L1210 cells, both H2B variants are modified, however only to the extent of 1-1.5% compared with about 11% of H2A. Analysis of cyanogen bromide peptides shows that ubiquitin is attached to the C-terminal part of the histone.  相似文献
7.
Metabolism of ubiquitinated histones   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
In animal chromatin, a fraction of the histone 2A's and 2B's is covalently attached to the protein ubiquitin through an isopeptide linkage. The ubiquitin moieties of the H2A's and H2B's are found to be in rapid equilibrium with the pool of free ubiquitin, both in dividing cells such as L1210 and Chinese hamster ovary cells and in nondividing cells such as unstimulated lymphocytes. The synthesis of ubiquitin and the formation of ubiquitinated histones are not linked to DNA synthesis. All ubiquitinated histones, including the four H2A variants and the H2B's are absent from isolated metaphase chromosomes.  相似文献
8.
Ubiquitinated histones uH2A.1, uH2A.Z, and uH2B have been identified in the basic nuclear proteins of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum by three methods: peptide mapping, cross-reaction with anti-ubiquitin antibody, and uH2A and uH2B isopeptidase cleavage. In microplasmodia, uH2A amounts to 7% of H2A and uH2B amounts to 6% of H2B. Detailed studies of mitosis in Physarum polycephalum macroplasmodia show that in early prophase, which last 15 min, the uH2As and uH2B are both strongly present, whereas minutes later in metaphase, which lasts 7 min, they disappear. When the nuclei enter anaphase, which lasts 3 min, both the uH2As and uH2B reappear. These precise studies suggest that cleavage of ubiquitin from the uH2As and uH2B is a very late, possibly final event in chromosome condensation to metaphase chromosomes and that ubiquitination is an early event in their decondensation. It is proposed that the uH2A and uH2B mark specific regions of the genome which have to be deubiquitinated prior to packaging into metaphase chromosomes; after metaphase these regions are the first to be decondensed and ubiquitinated. This modification, however, is not thought to be a general factor in chromosome condensation but labels a specific subcomponent of chromatin containing the expressed genes of a particular cell type or an important subset of these genes required by the cell to be available for activation, e.g. stress genes.  相似文献
9.
A full length cDNA clone that directs the in vitro synthesis of human histone H2A isoprotein H2A.X has been isolated and sequenced. H2A.X contains 142 amino acid residues, 13 more than human H2A.1. The sequence of the first 120 residues of H2A.X is almost identical to that of human H2A.1. The sequence of the carboxy-terminal 22 residues of H2A.X is unrelated to any known sequence in vertebrate histone H2A; however, it contains a sequence homologous with those of several lower eukaryotes. This homology centers on the carboxy-terminal tetrapeptide which in H2A.X is SerGlnGluTyr. Homologous sequences are found in H2As of three types of yeasts, in Tetrahymena and Drosophila. Seven of the nine carboxy-terminal amino acids of H2A.X are identical with those of S. cerevisiae H2A.1. It is suggested that this H2A carboxy-terminal motif may be present in all eukaryotes. The H2A.X cDNA is 1585 bases long followed by a polyA tail. There are 73 nucleotides in the 5' UTR, 432 in the coding region, and 1080 in the 3' UTR. Even though H2A.X is considered a basal histone, being synthesized in G1 as well as in S-phase, and its mRNA contains polyA addition motifs and a polyA tail, its mRNA also contains the conserved stem-loop and U7 binding sequences involved in the processing and stability of replication type histone mRNAs. Two forms of H2A.X mRNA, consistent with the two sets of processing signals were found in proliferating cell cultures. One, about 1600 bases long, contains polyA; the other, about 575 bases long, lacks polyA. The short form behaves as a replication type histone mRNA, decreasing in amount when cell cultures are incubated with inhibitors of DNA synthesis, while the longer behaves as a basal type histone mRNA.  相似文献
10.
The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for the evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal H2A isoprotein, H2A.Z, have been determined for the rat, cow, and human. As a basal histone, H2A.Z is synthesized throughout the cell cycle at a constant rate, unlinked to DNA replication, and at a much lower rate in quiescent cells. Each of the cDNA isolates encodes the entire H2A.Z polypeptide. The human isolate is about 1.0 kilobases long. It contains a coding region of 387 nucleotides flanked by 106 nucleotides of 5'UTR and 376 nucleotides of 3'UTR, which contains a polyadenylation signal followed by a poly A tail. The bovine and rat cDNAs have 97 and 94% nucleotide positional identity to the human cDNA in the coding region and 98% in the proximal 376 nucleotides of the 3'UTR which includes the polyadenylation signal. A potential stem-forming sequence imbedded in a direct repeat is found centered at 261 nucleotides into the 3'UTR. Each of the cDNA clones could be transcribed and translated in vitro to yield H2A.Z protein. The mammalian H2A.Z cDNA coding sequences are approximately 80% similar to those in chicken and 75% to those in sea urchin.  相似文献
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