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1.
Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA.   总被引:215,自引:12,他引:203       下载免费PDF全文
A method is presented for the rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA (50,000 base pairs or more in length) which is free of contaminants which interfere with complete digestion by restriction endonucleases. The procedure yields total cellular DNA (i.e. nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial DNA). The technique is ideal for the rapid isolation of small amounts of DNA from many different species and is also useful for large scale isolations.  相似文献
2.
J D Palmer  W F Thompson 《Cell》1982,29(2):537-550
We examined the arrangement of sequences common to seven angiosperm chloroplast genomes. The chloroplast DNAs of spinach, petunia and cucumber are essentially colinear. They share with the corn chloroplast genome a large inversion of approximately 50 kb relative to the genomes of three legumes--mung bean, pea and broad bean. There is one additional rearrangement, a second, smaller inversion within the 50 kb inversion, which is specific to the corn genome. These two changes are the only detectable rearrangements that have occurred during the evolution of the species examined (corn, spinach, petunia, cucumber and mung bean) whose chloroplast genomes contain a large inverted repeat sequence of 22-25 kb. In contrast, we find extensive sequence rearrangements in comparing the pea and broad bean genomes, both of which have deleted one entire segment of the inverted repeat, and also in comparing each of these to the mung bean genome. Thus there is a relatively stable arrangement of sequences in those genomes with the inverted repeat and a much more dynamic arrangement in those that have lost it. We discuss several explanations for this correlation, including the possibility that the inverted repeat may play a direct role in maintaining a conserved arrangement of chloroplast DNA sequences.  相似文献
3.
The yeast ARS-1 element contains a scaffold attachment region (SAR) that we have previously shown can bind to plant nuclear scaffolds in vitro. To test effects on expression, constructs in which a chimeric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was flanked by this element were delivered into tobacco suspension cells by microprojectile bombardment. In stably transformed cell lines, GUS activity averaged 12-fold higher (24-fold on a gene copy basis) for a construct containing two flanking SARs than for a control construct lacking SARs. Expression levels were not proportional to gene copy number, as would have been predicted if the element simply reduced position effect variation. Instead, the element appeared to reduce an inhibitory effect on expression in certain transformants containing multiple gene copies. The effect on expression appears to require chromosomal integration, because SAR constructs were only twofold more active than the controls in transient assays.  相似文献
4.
Matrix attachment regions (MARs) can be operationally defined as DNA fragments that bind to the nuclear matrix. We have created a library of randomly obtained MARs from tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) by cloning DNA fragments that co-isolate with nuclear matrixes prepared by a method involving lithium diiodosalicylate. The interactions of several of the cloned MARs with nuclear matrixes were tested by an in vitro binding assay in which genomic DNA was used as competitor. Based on this assay, the MARs were classified as strong, medium, and weak binders. Examples of each of the binding classes were further studied by in vitro binding using self- and cross-competition. Estimates of dissociation constants for several MARs ranged from 6 to 11 nM and correlated inversely with binding strength. The number of binding sites per matrix for several MARs ranged from 4 x 10(5) to 9 x 10(5) and correlated directly with binding strength. We conclude that binding strength, as we have measured it, is a function of both numbers of binding sites and affinity for the sites. The tobacco MARs were sequenced and analyzed for overall AT content, for distribution of AT-rich regions, and for the abundance of several MAR-related motifs. Previously identified MAR motifs correlate to various degrees with binding strength. Notably, the Drosophila topoisomerase II motif does not correlate with binding strength of the tobacco MARs. A newly identified motif, the "90%AT Box," correlates better with binding strength than any of the previously identified motifs we investigated.  相似文献
5.
Prominent features of the cytosine methylation pattern of the Pisum sativum nuclear ribosomal RNA genes have been defined. Cytosine methylation within the C-C-G-G sequence was studied using the restriction enzymes HpaII and MspI and gel blot hybridizations of the restriction digests. The extent to which particular features of the methylation pattern change during seedling development has also been determined. Total cellular DNA, purified from defined sections of pea seedlings grown under different lighting conditions, was analyzed with DNA hybridization probes derived from different portions of a cloned member of the nuclear rRNA gene family. By use of an indirect end-labeling technique, a map of 23 cleavable HpaII and/or MspI sites in genomic rDNA was constructed. The map covers about 90% of the rDNA repeat including the entire non-transcribed spacer region and most of the rRNA coding sequences. One notable feature of the map is that the most prominent HpaII site, located about 800 base-pairs upstream from the 5' end of the mature 18 S rRNA, is cleaved only in one of the two most abundant rDNA length variants (the short variant). With a gel blot assay specific for cleavage at this site, we estimated the HpaII sensitivity of DNA preparations from several stages of pea seedling development. We find that, while methylation is generally low in young seedlings, DNA obtained from the apical buds of pea seedlings is highly methylated. Further, the methylation level of rDNA within the pea bud decreases as the buds are allowed to develop under continuous white light. Our data, taken together with published studies on pea seedling development, indicate that cytosine methylation levels may be related to the regulated expression of the nuclear rRNA genes in pea.  相似文献
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7.
In previous studies using leaves of light-grown transgenic tobacco plants, we have shown that sequences located within the transcribed region of the pea Fed-1 gene (encoding ferredoxin I) are major cis-acting determinants of light-regulated mRNA accumulation. However, we show here that these internal sequences are less important for the Fed-1 light response in etiolated tobacco seedlings than they are in green leaves and that upstream elements confer organ specificity and contribute significantly to Fed-1 light responses in etiolated material. Light effects mediated by upstream response elements are thus most pronounced during the initial induction of gene activity, whereas internal elements play a more prominent role in modulating Fed-1 expression once the gene is already active.  相似文献
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9.
We have previously shown that yeast scaffold attachment regions (SARs) flanking a chimeric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene increased per-copy expression levels by 24-fold in tobacco suspension cell lines stably transformed by microprojectile bombardment. In this study, we examined the effect of a DNA fragment originally identified in a tobacco genomic clone by its activity in an in vitro binding assay. The tobacco SAR has much greater scaffold binding affinity than does the yeast SAR, and tobacco cell lines stably transformed with constructs containing the tobacco SAR accumulated greater than fivefold more GUS enzyme activity than did lines transformed with the yeast SAR construct. Relative to the control construct, flanking the GUS gene with plant SARs increased overall expression per transgene copy by almost 140-fold. In transient expression assays, the same construct increased expression only approximately threefold relative to a control without SARs, indicating that the full SAR effect requires integration into chromosomal DNA. GUS activity in individual stable transformants was not simply proportional to transgene copy number, and the SAR effect was maximal in cell lines with fewer than approximately 10 transgene copies per tobacco genome. Lines with significantly higher copy numbers showed greatly greatly reduced expression relative to the low-copy-number lines. Our results indicate that strong SARs flanking a transgene greatly increases expression without eliminating variation between transformants. We propose that SARs dramatically reduce the severity or likelihood of homology-dependent gene silencing in cells with small numbers of transgenes but do not prevent silencing of transgenes present in many copies.  相似文献
10.
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