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A E Smith  R Kamen  W F Mangel  H Shure  T Wheeler 《Cell》1976,9(3):481-487
The 19S and 16S polyoma virus late mRNAs have been separated on sucrose-formamide density gradients and translated in vitro. The 16S RNA codes only for polyoma capsid protein VP1, while the 19S RNA codes in addition for capsid protein VP2. Since the 19S and 16S species have been previously mapped on the viral genome, these results allow us to deduce the location of the sequences coding for VP1 and VP2. Comparison of the chain lengths of the capsid proteins with the size of the viral mRNAs coding for them suggests that VP1 and VP2 are entirely virus-coded. Purified polyoma 19S RNA directs the synthesis of very little VP1 in vitro, although it contains all the sequences required to code for the protein. The initiation site for VP1 synthesis which is located at an internal position on the messenger is probably inactive either because it is inaccessible or because it lacks an adjacent "capped" 5' terminus. Similar inactive internal initiation sites have been reported for other eucarotic viral mRNAs (for example, Semliki forest virus, Brome mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus), suggesting that while eucaryotic mRNAs may have more than one initiation site for protein synthesis, only those sites nearer the 5' terminus of the mRNA are active.  相似文献
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The neutralizing characteristics of monoclonal antibodies directed to four antigenic sites on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus were determined. Neutralization by each antibody resulted in a persistent fraction of nonneutralized virus which varied from 1 to 17% depending on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase site recognized, but not on the antibody. The addition of antibodies to all four sites on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein was required to give a level of neutralization comparable with that obtained with polyclonal mouse antiserum. The high persistent fractions were not due to viral aggregates, a high level of variants in the virus stock, the use of insufficient antibody, low antibody avidity, or an effect peculiar to the use of the chicken cells as host. The addition of rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin to the persistent fraction left by any of the antibodies resulted in a further reduction in infectivity, often by as much as two logs. Thus, some viral particles are capable of binding antibody while retaining their infectivity. The implications of these findings to the mechanism of neutralization are discussed.  相似文献
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R A Bok  W F Mangel 《Biochemistry》1985,24(13):3279-3286
The binding of human Glu- and Lys-plasminogens to intact fibrin clots, to lysine-Sepharose, and to fibrin cleaved by plasmin was quantitatively characterized. On intact fibrin clots, there was one strong binding site for Glu-plasminogen with a dissociation constant, Kd, of 25 microM and one strong binding site for Lys-plasminogen with a Kd of 7.9 microM. In both cases, the number of plasminogen binding sites per fibrin monomer was 1. Also, a much weaker binding site for Glu-plasminogen was observed with a Kd of about 350 microM. Limited digestion of fibrin by plasmin created additional binding sites for plasminogen with Kd values similar to the binding of plasminogen to lysine-Sepharose. This was predictable given the observations that plasminogen binds to lysine-Sepharose and can be eluted with epsilon-aminocaproic acid [Deutsch, D.G., & Mertz, E.T. (1970) Science (Washington, D.C.) 170, 1095-1096] and that plasmin preferentially cleaves fibrin at the carboxy side of lysyl residues [Weinstein, M.J., & Doolittle, R.F. (1972) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 258, 577-590], because the structures of the lysyl moiety in lysine-Sepharose and of epsilon-aminocaproic acid are identical with the structure of a COOH-terminal lysyl residue created by plasmin cleavage of fibrin. The Kd for the binding of Glu-plasminogen to lysine-Sepharose was 43 microM and for fibrin partially cleaved by plasmin 48 microM. The Kd for the binding of Lys-plasminogen to lysine-Sepharose was 30 microM. With fibrin partially cleaved by plasmin, there were two types of binding sites for Lys-plasminogen, one with a Kd of 7.6 microM and the other with a Kd of 44 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
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