首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   4篇
  2006年   1篇
  2004年   2篇
  2003年   1篇
排序方式: 共有4条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1
1.
We explore the issues relevant to those types of ecosystems containing new combinations of species that arise through human action, environmental change, and the impacts of the deliberate and inadvertent introduction of species from other regions. Novel ecosystems (also termed 'emerging ecosystems') result when species occur in combinations and relative abundances that have not occurred previously within a given biome. Key characteristics are novelty, in the form of new species combinations and the potential for changes in ecosystem functioning, and human agency, in that these ecosystems are the result of deliberate or inadvertent human action. As more of the Earth becomes transformed by human actions, novel ecosystems increase in importance, but are relatively little studied. Either the degradation or invasion of native or 'wild' ecosystems or the abandonment of intensively managed systems can result in the formation of these novel systems. Important considerations are whether these new systems are persistent and what values they may have. It is likely that it may be very difficult or costly to return such systems to their previous state, and hence consideration needs to be given to developing appropriate management goals and approaches.  相似文献
2.
Increasing land salinization in Australia is predicted to lead to severe declines in species diversity in affected areas, and perhaps significant numbers of species extinctions. Much of the diversity that will be lost consists of understorey and mid-storey species, yet the overwhelming majority of research has focussed on salinity tolerance in tree species. We investigated how the presence of a shallow, saline water table affected the understorey species composition, species richness and species diversity in two remnant Eucalyptus wandoo Blakely woodlands in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Species richness and species diversity were significantly lower in areas with a shallow water table at elevations < 0.5 m above the lowest local elevation, compared with both higher elevations and with areas of low elevation without a shallow water table. Species composition (Bray-Curtis similarities) was also significantly different in low elevation, saline areas. At one site, saline areas were colonized by native and alien species that were not present in the surrounding vegetation, yet the community that has developed does not contain either the species or structural diversity of the surrounding system. At the other site, no colonisation of saline areas by new species occurred. Even though small differences in elevation (< 0.5 m) at our study sites were important in moderating the impacts of salinity in areas with a shallow water table, the loss of species diversity, species richness and structural complexity in low-lying elevations indicated that the ecological risk from secondary salinity to species associated only with drainage lines, seasonally wet flats and other low-lying areas is severe. The priority is to identify those vegetation communities that are restricted to only low relative elevations within the landscape and that only occur in remnants predicted to be at a high risk of developing a shallow and saline water table.  相似文献
3.
More than 2 M ha of remnant vegetation in Australia is predicted to be at risk from shallow water tables by 2050. Currently, vegetation is considered to be at risk where the water table is predicted to be less than 2 m below the soil surface, yet casual observation of areas affected by secondary salinity in the Western Australian wheatbelt has suggested that small differences in elevation (< 0.5 m) are important in determining plant health. In this study, we investigated how small changes in elevation (and hence depth to the water table) affected soil Cl concentrations and water contents, and whether small changes in elevation were associated with major changes in tree health in two remnants of Eucalyptus wandoo Blakely woodland with secondary salinity. At one site there were strong dissimilarities between soil samples collected above or below relative elevations of 0.5 m in areas with a shallow (0.3 m deep in September 2001) and saline water table. This was reflected in almost complete tree mortality at relative elevations below 0.5 m. However, low rainfall in 2001 meant that it was unlikely that current soil conditions had caused tree death. When water table data for 1999 was overlaid over plots of tree health and transect topography, high levels of tree mortality corresponded with areas where the water table was at or above the ground surface. At the other site, there was no clear relationship between elevation, soil characteristics and tree health. Localised variation in abiotic conditions and ecosystem processes at a fine-scale may buffer, to some extent, the spatial impact of soil salinity and waterlogging in remnant vegetation. Collapses in tree health at some sites are likely to be related to extreme and episodic events, which we may have limited ability to predict.  相似文献
4.
Natural woodland ecosystems in southwestern Australia are examined in terms of their spatial structure at three different scales. Fine-scale structure of the vegetation and soil surface has a strong influence on water capture and retention, resulting in mostly localised infiltration and use. Stand-scale structure results from the patchy distribution of canopy trees, regeneration patches and a diversity of understorey shrubs which provides a diverse above- and below-ground structure. At the landscape scale, broad vegetation patterns are related to soil and landform changes along catenas, but there are also finer-scale mosaics resulting from disturbance history, individualistic species distributions and more subtle physical/chemical changes. Complex patterns at all these scales confer resilience to the woodland system. Most of this complexity has been lost in the current agricultural system, and it can be hypothesised that many current degradation problems can be related to this. The challenge for the future is to develop complexity and resilience in agricultural systems while maintaining an acceptable level of production.  相似文献
1
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号