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Tissue-specific segregation of CD1d-dependent and CD1d-independent NK T cells.   总被引:24,自引:0,他引:24  
NKT cells, defined as T cells expressing the NK cell marker NK1.1, are involved in tumor rejection and regulation of autoimmunity via the production of cytokines. We show in this study that two types of NKT cells can be defined on the basis of their reactivity to the monomorphic MHC class I-like molecule CD1d. One type of NKT cell is positively selected by CD1d and expresses a biased TCR repertoire together with a phenotype found on activated T cells. A second type of NKT cell, in contrast, develops in the absence of CD1d, and expresses a diverse TCR repertoire and a phenotype found on naive T cells and NK cells. Importantly, the two types of NKT cells segregate in distinct tissues. Whereas thymus and liver contain primarily CD1d-dependent NKT cells, spleen and bone marrow are enriched in CD1d-independent NKT cells. Collectively, our data suggest that recognition of tissue-specific ligands by the TCR controls localization and activation of NKT cells.  相似文献
3.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice may be favored by immune dysregulation leading to the hyporesponsiveness of regulatory T cells and activation of effector T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells. The immunoregulatory activity of natural killer T (NKT) cells is well documented, and both interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 secreted by NKT cells have important roles in mediating this activity. NKT cells are less frequent and display deficient IL-4 responses in both NOD mice and individuals at risk for T1D (ref. 8), and this deficiency may lead to T1D (refs. 1,6-9). Thus, given that NKT cells respond to the alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) glycolipid in a CD1d-restricted manner by secretion of Th2 cytokines, we reasoned that activation of NKT cells by alpha-GalCer might prevent the onset and/or recurrence of T1D. Here we show that alpha-GalCer treatment, even when initiated after the onset of insulitis, protects female NOD mice from T1D and prolongs the survival of pancreatic islets transplanted into newly diabetic NOD mice. In addition, when administered after the onset of insulitis, alpha-GalCer and IL-7 displayed synergistic effects, possibly via the ability of IL-7 to render NKT cells fully responsive to alpha-GalCer. Protection from T1D by alpha-GalCer was associated with the suppression of both T- and B-cell autoimmunity to islet beta cells and with a polarized Th2-like response in spleen and pancreas of these mice. These findings raise the possibility that alpha-GalCer treatment might be used therapeutically to prevent the onset and recurrence of human T1D.  相似文献
4.
NKT cells are a remarkably versatile population whose functional capacities are determined by cytokines present in their microenvironment. In this study, we provide evidence for a new immunoregulatory effect of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 on NKT cells. We found that IL-18, mainly known for its involvement in NK cell activation and in Th 1 immune responses, substantially enhanced IL-4 production as well as the percentage of IL-4(+) cells among NKT lymphocytes activated by their specific ligand alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer). The effect of IL-18 on IL-4 production by activated NKT cells took place both in vivo and in vitro and was not affected by IL-12 which increased IFN-gamma secretion in the same conditions. We show that NKT cells are the main targets for IL-18-induced IL-4 production since it occurred neither in NKT-deficient mice nor after stimulation of Th2 lymphocytes. Finally, we provide evidence that the IL-4 promptly generated by NKT cells in response to IL-18 plus alpha-galactosylceramide in vivo can effectively contribute to the adaptive Th2 immune response by up-regulating the early activation marker CD69 on B cells. Our data support the notion that, in contrast to the exclusive IFN-gamma inducer IL-12, IL-18 acts in a more subtle manner as a costimulatory factor in both pro-Th1 and pro-Th2 responses depending on the nature of the stimulation and the target cells.  相似文献
5.
IL-12 has been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor activities in a variety of mouse tumor models, but the relative roles of NK, NKT, and T cells and their effector mechanisms in these responses have not been fully addressed. Using a spectrum of gene-targeted or Ab-treated mice we have shown that for any particular tumor model the effector mechanisms downstream of IL-12 often mimic the natural immune response to that tumor. For example, metastasis of the MHC class I-deficient lymphoma, EL4-S3, was strictly controlled by NK cells using perforin either naturally or following therapy with high-dose IL-12. Intriguingly, in B16F10 and RM-1 tumor models both NK and NKT cells contribute to natural protection from tumor metastasis. In these models, a lower dose of IL-12 or delayed administration of IL-12 dictated a greater relative role of NKT cells in immune protection from tumor metastasis. Overall, both NK and NKT cells can contribute to natural and IL-12-induced immunity against tumors, and the relative role of each population is tumor and therapy dependent.  相似文献
6.
A mAb specific for the murine IL-2R beta-chain (IL-2R beta) was produced by immunizing a rat with a rat transfectant cell line expressing a large number of cDNA-encoded murine IL-2R beta. The mAb, designated TM-beta 1, is specifically reactive with the murine IL-2R beta cDNA-transfectant but not with the recipient cell, and immunoprecipitates murine IL-2R beta of Mr 75 to 85 kDa. TM-beta 1 mAb completely abolished the high affinity IL-2 binding by inhibiting the ligand binding to IL-2R beta. Murine IL-2R beta was found to be constitutively expressed on a subpopulation of CD8+ T cells and almost all NK1.1+ NK cells in the spleen, whereas TM-beta 1 mAb inhibited the proliferation of spleen cells induced by 1 nM of IL-2. Interestingly, EL-4 cells that express murine IL-2R beta as detected by TM-beta 1 mAb can bind neither human nor murine IL-2 under the intermediate affinity conditions, although cDNA-directed human IL-2R beta expressed in the same EL-4 cells has been previously shown to manifest the intermediate affinity IL-2 binding. These results may imply that functional expression of IL-2R beta is differentially regulated between humans and mice. Finally, our neutralizing anti-IL-2R beta mAb TM-beta 1 will be useful not only for various in vitro studies but also for in vivo studies to directly investigate the possible involvement of the IL-2/IL-2R pathway in the generation and differentiation of T lymphocytes and NK cells.  相似文献
7.
In a model of systemic tolerance called Anterior Chamber-Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID), the differentiation of the T regulatory (Tr) cells depends on NK T cells and occurs in the spleen. We now show that the CD1d-reactive NK T cell subpopulation, required for development of systemic tolerance, expresses the invariant V alpha 14J alpha 281 TCR because J alpha 281 knockout (KO) mice were unable to generate Ag-specific Tr cells and ACAID. The mechanism for NK T cell-dependent differentiation of Ag-specific Tr cells mediating systemic tolerance was studied by defining the cytokine profiles in heterogeneous and enriched NK T spleen cells. In contrast to there being no differences in most regulatory cytokine mRNAs, both mRNA and protein for IL-10 were increased in splenic NK T cells of anterior chamber (a.c.)-inoculated mice. However, IL-10 mRNA was not increased in spleens after i.v. inoculation. Finally, NK T cells from wild-type (WT) mice, but not from IL-10 KO mice, reconstituted the ACAID inducing ability in J alpha 281 KO mice. Thus, NK T cell-derived IL-10 is critical for the generation of the Ag-specific Tr cells and systemic tolerance induced to eye-inoculated Ags.  相似文献
8.
ORP150 protects against hypoxia/ischemia-induced neuronal death   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
Oxygen-regulated protein 150 kD (ORP150) is a novel endoplasmic-reticulum-associated chaperone induced by hypoxia/ischemia. Although ORP150 was sparingly upregulated in neurons from human brain undergoing ischemic stress, there was robust induction in astrocytes. Cultured neurons overexpressing ORP150 were resistant to hypoxemic stress, whereas astrocytes with inhibited ORP150 expression were more vulnerable. Mice with targeted neuronal overexpression of ORP150 had smaller strokes compared with controls. Neurons with increased ORP150 demonstrated suppressed caspase-3-like activity and enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under hypoxia signaling. These data indicate that ORP150 is an integral participant in ischemic cytoprotective pathways.  相似文献
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10.
Gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells is a powerful tool for generating mice carrying specifically designed mutations in the germline. Puromycin can completely kill ES cells within 24 to 48 h whereas G418 and hygromycin cannot. We have, therefore, proposed that the puromycin N-acetyltransferase ( pac ) gene, may be utilized as a transient gene-integration marker. Using a circular expression vector of cre and pac genes, Cre-mediated mutant cells were effectively enriched by pulse treatment of puromycin without stable integration of their genes. We have thus demonstrated the first application of pac as a transient gene-integration marker for ES cells.  相似文献
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