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M1 RNA, the RNA subunit of ribonuclease P from Escherichia coli, can under certain conditions catalytically cleave precursors to tRNA in the absence of C5, the protein moiety of RNase P. M1 RNA itself is not cleaved during the reaction, nor does it form any covalent bonds with its substrate. Only magnesium and, to a lesser extent, manganese ions can function at the catalytic center of M1 RNA. Several other ions either inhibit the binding of magnesium ion at the active site or function as structural counterions. The reaction rate of cleavage of precursors to tRNAs by M1 RNA is enhanced in the presence of poly-(ethylene glycol) or 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol. Many aspects of the reaction catalyzed by M1 RNA are compatible with a mechanism in which phosphodiester bond cleavage is mediated by metal ion.  相似文献
3.
We propose a candidate for the "putative" endothelin (ET) converting enzyme in the cultured endothelial cells (ECs) of bovine carotid artery. The enzyme is membrane-bound, soluble in 0.5% Triton X-100, and capable of converting human big ET-1 to ET-1 by a specific cleavage between Trp21 and Val22. The conversion reached 90% after a 5-hr incubation in the presence of DFP, PCMS and pepstatin A, but it was inhibited by EDTA, omicron-phenanthroline or phosphoramidon. The enzyme is very sensitive to pH, and active only between pH 6.6 and pH 7.6. Conversion of big ET-3 by this enzyme was only 1/9 that of big ET-1. From these results, ET-1 converting enzyme in the bovine EC is most likely to be a membrane-bound, neutral metalloendopeptidase, which is much less susceptible to big ET-3.  相似文献
4.
Neutral metalloproteases with endothelin-1 (ET-1) converting activity were detected in membranous and cytosolic fractions of cultured endothelial cells (EC) from bovine carotid artery in a ratio of 5:1, respectively. The cytosolic enzyme specifically and quantitatively converts big ET-1 to ET-1 (Km = 10.7 microM), but does not convert big ET-3. Like the membranous enzyme, the cytosolic enzyme is only active at pH 6.5-7.5, and is competitively inhibited by phosphoramidon (Ki = 0.79 microM). The apparent molecular weight of the cytosolic enzyme is about 540 kD, which is 5-6 times greater than that of the membranous enzyme. These results indicate the presence of two types of phosphoramidon-sensitive neutral ET-converting enzyme in vascular EC.  相似文献
5.
A cleavage product of alpha-fodrin may be an important organ-specific autoantigen in the pathogenesis of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), but the mechanisms of alpha-fodrin cleavage remain unclear. Since EBV has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SS, we determined whether EBV activation could induce the SS-specific 120-kDa autoantigen alpha-fodrin. ZEBRA mRNA expression, a marker for activation of the lytic cycle of EBV, was found in the salivary gland tissues from SS patients, but not in those from control individuals. ZEBRA-expressing lymphoid cells were also found in the SS glands in double-stained immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, a significant link between production of Abs against 120-kDa alpha-fodrin and reactivated EBV Ag was found in sera from patients with SS, but not in those from control individuals. EBV-activated lymphoid cells showed specific alpha-fodrin cleavage to the expected 120-kDa fragments in vitro. Pretreatment with caspase inhibitors inhibited cleavage of alpha-fodrin. Thus, an increase in apoptotic protease activities induced by EBV reactivation may be involved in the progression of alpha-fodrin proteolysis in the development of SS.  相似文献
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Our previous reports indicated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes to the malignant phenotype and resistance to apoptosis in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cell line Akata (N. Shimizu, A. Tanabe-Tochikura, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Takada, J. Virol. 68:6069-6073, 1994; J. Komano, M. Sugiura, and K. Takada, J. Virol. 72:9150-9156, 1998). Here we report that the EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are responsible for these phenotypes. Transfection of the EBER genes into EBV-negative Akata clones restored the capacity for growth in soft agar, tumorigenicity in SCID mice, resistance to apoptotic inducers, and upregulated expression of bcl-2 oncoprotein that were originally retained in parental EBV-positive Akata cells and lost in EBV-negative subclones. This is the first report which provides evidence that virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) have oncogenic functions in BL cells.  相似文献
7.
Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, has the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we examined the effect of EA contained in microspheres on the ulcerative colitis induced experimentally in rats by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Experimental colitis was induced in male Fisher 344 rats by daily treatment with 3% DSS solution in drinking water for 7 days. EA of microspheres (mcEA: 1 approximately 10 mg/kg as EA contents) was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. In a preliminary study, we found that these microsphere capsules, when administered p.o., are effectively dissolved in the proximal to the ileo-cecal junction and distributed to the terminal ileum and the colon. The ulceration area, colon length, and mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were measured on 7th day after the onset of DSS treatment. The DSS treatment for 7 days caused severe mucosal lesions in the colon, accompanied with the increases of MPO activity and TBARS as well as the decreases of body weight gain and colon length. Administration of mcEA reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner, and a significant effect was observed at 10 mg/kg, the ED50 being 2.3 mg/kg. This mcEA treatment also significantly mitigated changes in various biochemical parameters in the colonic mucosa induced by DSS. Although plain EA (without using microspheres) was also effective in reducing the severity of DSS-induced colitis, this effect was much less potent as compared with that of mcEA; the ED50 was about 15 times higher than that of mcEA. In addition, a significant effect on DSS-induced colitis was also obtained by intra-rectal administration of superoxide dismutase, an anti-oxidative agent. These results suggest that EA prevents the ulcerative colitis induced by DSS, probably by radical scavenging and/or anti-oxidative actions. The microspheres used in this study may be useful for delivering an orally administered drug specifically to the colon.  相似文献
8.
Isolation and characterization of ornitho-kininogen   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Ornitho-kininogen was purified from chicken blood plasma by a two-stage method using chromatography on columns of S-alkylated papain-Cellulofine and DEAE-5PW. The yield was 1.7 mg from 44 ml plasma. The isolated preparation gave a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with or without 2-mercaptoethanol and on disc/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative molecular mass, Mr, of ornitho-kininogen was estimated as 74,000 on SDS-PAGE using the Ferguson plot method. Ornitho-kininogen was found to have the similar properties to those of mammalian high-Mr kininogen, in terms of the amino acid composition, molecular mass, and susceptibility to plasma kallikrein. No kininogen corresponding to mammalian low-Mr kininogen and rat T-kininogen could be detected in chicken plasma. In fact, ornitho-kininogen was degraded rapidly by bovine plasma kallikrein, liberating a kinin. This kinin was isolated from the digest by reversed-phase HPLC. The primary structure of the isolated kinin was determined as Arg1-Pro2-Pro3-Gly4-Phe5-Thr6-Pro7-Leu8-Arg9. The sequence of this peptide, named ornitho-kinin, was similar to that of bradykinin except for the substitution of Thr6 and Leu8 for Ser6 and Phe8. The isolated ornitho-kinin induced a contraction of chicken smooth muscle and had a strong hypotensive effect in the chicken. However, it did not contract the isolated rat uterus. It is suggested that this specificity difference is due to the replacement of Phe8 by Leu8. The sequence of residues 1-30 of ornitho-kininogen exhibited 43% identity with that of bovine kininogen.  相似文献
9.
We have demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) confers enhanced growth capability in soft agarose, tumorigenesis in the SCID mouse, and resistance to apoptosis in the Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Akata. Subsequently, we have shown that EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are responsible for these phenotypes. We constantly observed the upregulation of bcl-2 oncoprotein expression upon EBV infection and expression of EBERs. To test whether these phenotypes were due to the upregulation of bcl-2 expression, we introduced bcl-2 into EBV-negative Akata cells at various levels encompassing the range at which EBV-positive cells expressed it. As cells expressed bcl-2 at higher levels, they became more capable of growing in soft agarose and became resistant to apoptosis. However, clones expressing bcl-2 at a higher level than EBV-positive Akata cells were negative in the tumorigenesis assay in the SCID mouse. On the other hand, introduction of bax into EBV-positive Akata cells reduced the resistance to apoptosis; however, it failed to reduce the growth capability in soft agarose. These data indicate that EBV targets not only bcl-2, but also an unknown pathway(s) to enhance the oncogenic potential of Akata cells.  相似文献
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