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1.
Familial Alzheimer disease mutations of presenilin 1 (PS-1) enhance the generation of A beta1-42, indicating that PS-1 is involved in amyloidogenesis. However, PS-1 transgenic mice have failed to show amyloid plaques in their brains. Because PS-1 mutations facilitate apoptotic neuronal death in vitro, we did careful quantitative studies in PS-1 transgenic mice and found that neurodegeneration was significantly accelerated in mice older than 13 months (aged mice) with familial Alzheimer disease mutant PS-1, without amyloid plaque formation. However, there were significantly more neurons containing intracellularly deposited A beta42 in aged mutant transgenic mice. Our data indicate that the pathogenic role of the PS-1 mutation is upstream of the amyloid cascade.  相似文献
2.
Human V alpha 24+ NK T cells are a unique subset of lymphocytes expressing the V alpha 24J alpha Q invariant TCR chain. Because they can rapidly produce large amounts of regulatory cytokines, a reduction of NK T cells may lead to the development of certain autoimmune diseases. Using a single-strand conformation polymorphism method, we demonstrate that a great reduction of V alpha 24J alpha Q NK T cells in the peripheral blood is an immunological hallmark of multiple sclerosis, whereas it is not appreciable in other autoimmune/inflammatory diseases such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy lesions were often found to be infiltrated with V alpha 24J alpha Q NK T cells, but multiple sclerosis lesions only rarely expressed the V alpha 24J alpha Q TCR. It is therefore possible that the extent of NK T cell alteration may be a critical factor which would define the clinical and pathological features of autoimmune disease. Although the mechanism underlying the NK T cell deletion remains largely unclear, a remarkable contrast between the CNS and peripheral nervous system diseases allows us to speculate a role of tissue-specific elements such as the level of CD1d expression or differences in the CD1d-bound glycolipid.  相似文献
3.
T cell lines specific for bovine myelin proteolipid apoprotein (PLP) were established from SJL/J mice. The line cells bore surface phenotypes of T helper/inducer cells (Lyt-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+) and responded well to bovine, rat, and guinea pig PLP but not to myelin basic protein. One line responded to major PLP, and another responded to both major PLP and DM-20, which are the two major intrinsic membrane proteins of the central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Intraperitoneal inoculation of 4 to 30 X 10(6) PLP-activated line cells followed by injection of pertussis vaccine induced acute inflammatory disease of the CNS, with typical clinical signs of EAE mostly in a week in recipient mice that had been treated with low-dose irradiation. Almost all animals recovered completely, and two of the 12 animals relapsed 42 or 75 days after inoculation. The lesions were restricted to the CNS and were characterized by perivascular and parenchymal infiltration of inflammatory cells, fibrin deposit, and demyelination. In the severe lesions, axons were also damaged. These observations suggest that PLP is a definite encephalitogen, and PLP-sensitized effector T cells induce inflammatory demyelination in the CNS.  相似文献
4.
We have found that interleukin 3 (IL-3), a growth factor for hematopoietic cells, is a novel trophic factor for mouse and rat central cholinergic neurons. It enhanced neurite outgrowth and elevated choline acetyltransferase activity. The effect seems to be specific for cholinergic neurons, since somatostatin release and glutamic acid decarboxylase and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase activities were not significantly influenced by IL-3. In vivo, IL-3 was infused into the lateral ventricles of rats after unilateral axotomy of the septohippocampal pathways. Two weeks later, the IL-3-treated animals showed significant numbers of acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons remaining in the septal region.  相似文献
5.
The role of T-T cell interactions in the clinical course of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice was investigated. Myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive and encephalitogenic T cell clones were established from long-term lines derived from susceptible strain SJL/J mice and resistant strain DDD/1 mice. The lines and clones from DDD/1 mice were obtained by immunization of congenitally athymic mice of DDD/1 origin, which had been reconstituted with syngeneic Lyt-2+-depleted splenic T cells. The clones derived from both strains bore surface phenotypes of Lyt-1+, 2- and L3T4+, and proliferated well in response to rat, rabbit, bovine, and guinea pig MBP in the presence of antigen-presenting cells with I-As. Passive EAE could be induced in syngeneic normal recipients by these clones as well as by the lines from which the clones were derived. The clinical features of the clone-induced EAE were essentially the same as those of the line-induced EAE. Furthermore, DDD/1 athymic recipients developed signs of acute EAE by the adoptive transfer of I-A-compatible syngeneic and allogeneic T cell clones, in which there was no significant difference in time of onset, maximum severity, or prognosis. These results indicate that the entire clinical course of acute EAE can be elicited by a single population of MBP-reactive T cells in the absence of the thymus and other populations of primed or unprimed T cells.  相似文献
6.
S1 nuclease analysis was used to determine the levels and patterns of three beta amyloid protein precursor (BPP) mRNAs in mouse developmental brain and in primary neuronal and glial cultures. BPP695 mRNA lacking the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) domain was detected exclusively in neuronal cultures and increased considerably in late embryonic and early postnatal periods. On the other hand, BPP751 and 770 mRNAs with KPI domain were detected predominantly in astrocyte- and microglia-enriched cultures and increased slightly only in embryonic stages. These results suggest that the product of each BPP mRNA may play a different role in the brain.  相似文献
7.
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was successfully induced in BALB/c mice with DM-20, a protein component of proteolipid apoprotein. DM-20 was separated by ion exchange column chromatography with CM-Trisacryl from proteolipid apoprotein obtained from bovine spinal cords. Its purity was ascertained by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a dot immunobinding procedure, and amino acid analysis. Nine of 15 animals with a single injection of 100 micrograms of DM-20 and five of seven animals with a booster injection developed hind leg paralysis or axial rotatory movement 16 to 27 days after sensitization (mean 21.3 days). Five of the 14 animals relapsed 2 to 6 wk after the first attack. Histological examination revealed inflammatory lesion, with significant demyelination in the central nervous system. Antibody levels to DM-20 were not related to the clinical signs. Five of 11 BALB/c nude mice reconstituted with T cells developed similar clinical and pathologic signs. This DM-20-induced EAE in mice may provide a valuable model because it is similar to multiple sclerosis and because it can be induced in inbred mice in which immune mechanisms can be easily studied.  相似文献
8.
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a Th1 cell-mediated autoimmune disease that can be protected against by stimulating regulatory cells. Here we examined whether EAE can be purposefully modulated by stimulating Valpha14 NK T cells with the CD1d-restricted ligand alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GC). EAE induced in wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice was not appreciably altered by injection of alpha-GC. However, EAE induced in IL-4 knockout mice and IFN-gamma knockout mice was enhanced or suppressed by alpha-GC, respectively. This indicates that the IL-4 and IFN-gamma triggered by alpha-GC may play an inhibitory or enhancing role in the regulation of EAE. We next studied whether NK T cells of wild-type mice may switch their Th0-like phenotype toward Th1 or Th2. Notably, in the presence of blocking B7.2 (CD86) mAb, alpha-GC stimulation could bias the cytokine profile of NK T cells toward Th2, whereas presentation of alpha-GC by CD40-activated APC induced a Th1 shift of NK T cells. Furthermore, transfer of the alpha-GC-pulsed APC preparations suppressed or enhanced EAE according to their ability to polarize NK T cells toward Th2 or Th1 in vitro. These results have important implications for understanding the role of NK T cells in autoimmunity and for designing a therapeutic strategy targeting NK T cells.  相似文献
9.
We screened proteins for interaction with Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and cloned a new member of the X11 protein family, X11L2. The PID/PTB element of X11L2 protein interacted with the intracellular domain of APP by GST binding assay, and in vivo interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation from cell extracts overexpressing APP and HA-tagged X11L2. This gene encoded 575 amino acids and the deduced amino acid sequence was highly homologous to rat Mint3. Three protein-protein interaction domains, a PID/PTB and two PDZ elements, were conserved among the X11 protein family, and the N-terminal region of X11L2 protein had several putative SH3 binding motifs, PXXP. Unlike other members of the X11 protein family, X11L2 mRNA was expressed in various tissues.  相似文献
10.
Structural requirements of para-alkylphenols to bind to estrogen receptor.   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Octyl- and nonylphenols in the environment have been proposed to function as estrogens. To gain insight into their structural essentials in binding to the estrogen receptor, a series of phenols with saturated alkyl groups at the para position, HO-C6H4-CnH2n+1 (n = 0-12), were examined for their ability to displace [3H]17beta-estradiol in the recombinant human estrogen receptor, which was expressed in Sf9 cells using the vaculovirus expression system. All tested para-alkylphenols were found to bind fully to the estrogen receptors in a dose-dependent manner. The interaction of alkylphenols with the receptor became stronger with increase in the number of the alkyl carbons and the activity was maximized with n = 9 of nonylphenol. Phenol (n = 0) exhibited weak but full binding to the receptor, whereas anisole with a protected phenolic hydroxyl group was completely inactive. Also, alkanes such as n-octane, 2,2, 4-trimethylpentane corresponding to tert-octane, and n-nonane exhibited no binding. The results indicate that the binding of para-alkylphenols to the estrogen receptor is due to the effect of covalent bonding of two constituents of the phenol and alkyl groups, which correspond to the A-ring and hydrophobic moiety of the steroid structure, respectively. When alkylphenols were examined for their receptor binding conformation by 1H-NMR measurements and ab initio molecular orbital calculations, it was suggested that nonbranched alkyl groups are in an extended conformation, while branched alkyl groups are in a folded conformation. These results suggest that branched and nonbranched alkyl moieties of alkylphenols interact differently with the lipophilic ligand binding cavity of the estrogen receptor when compared to the binding of 17beta-estradiol.  相似文献
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