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Forty-two different sense codons, coding for all 20 amino acids, were placed at the ribosomal E site location, two codons upstream of a UGA or UAG codon. The influence of these variable codons on readthrough of the stop codons was measured in Escherichia coli. A 30-fold difference in readthrough of the UGA codon was observed. Readthrough is not related to any property of the upstream codon, its cognate tRNA or the nature of its codon-anticodon interaction. Instead, it is the amino acid corresponding to the second upstream codon, in particular the acidic/basic property of this amino acid, which seems to be a major determinant. This amino acid effect is influenced by the identity of the A site stop codon and the efficiency of its decoding tRNA, which suggests a correlation with ribosomal pausing. The magnitude of the amino acid effect is in some cases different when UGA is decoded by a wildtype form of tRNA(Trp) as compared with a suppressor form of the same tRNA. This indicates that the structure of the A site decoding tRNA is also a determinant for the amino acid effect.  相似文献
2.
Due to the high frequency of oral mucosal lesions observed in paracoccidioidomycosis patients, it was advocated that the infection was acquired by the traumatic implantation of the etiologic agent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Although at present this theory is considered invalid, it has not yet been excluded in experimental studies. In order to determine if intra-oral inoculation could explain the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis, 64 BALB/c mice were inoculated intra-orally with 850.000 viable P. brasiliensis conidia into the mandibular body. Animals were sacrificed at various time intervals up to 20 weeks and cultures were made from gingiva, lungs, spleen, and liver. Additionally, histopathological studies of the mandibular body were also performed. P. brasiliensis was isolated from all gingival tissues during the interval 24–72 h, indicating that the infection was active. During the 5–10 week period, the infection appeared to have been controlled at the inoculation site as cultures showed a significant reduction in colony forming units (CFU); however, at the 15–20 week period such control was lost and the fungus was recovered once more. Dissemination to other body sites was rare; thus, the lungs were involved in just one animal (2%), the liver in two (3%) and the spleen in seven (11%). The infection became established as proven by positive organ cultures, but the dissemination pattern did not correspond to the one observed in humans. Based on these findings, the intra-oral traumatic route does not appear to mimic the natural history of paracoccidioidomycosis. This revised version was published online in August 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
3.
The present study evaluates the evolutionary framework of the Old World fruitbats based on the cytochrome b and 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequences from a wide range of taxa. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that morphology-based subfamilies and most suprageneric groups are nonnatural assemblages. They also support the existence of an endemic African clade of fruitbats. The discrepancy between the evolutionary relationships yielded by molecular and morphological data sets may be, at least in part, explained by the recurrent retention of primitive morphology (Rousettus-like) across different lineages. The maintenance of primitive characters in different groups of flying foxes, as well as morphological convergence in nectar-feeding bats and possibly also in short-muzzle bats, may have led to high levels of homoplasy, resulting in misleading taxonomic arrangements. This may be particularly so with respect to high taxonomic levels based on morphological characters.  相似文献
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