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Jang M  Jang JY  Kim SH  Uhm KB  Kang YK  Kim HJ  Chung S  Park MK 《Cell calcium》2011,50(4):370-380
Dendritic Ca2+ plays an important role not only in synaptic integration and synaptic plasticity, but also in dendritic excitability in midbrain dopamine neurons. However, the functional organization of dendritic Ca2+ signals in the dopamine neurons remains largely unknown. We therefore investigated dendritic Ca2+ signals by measuring glutamate-induced Ca2+ increases along the dendrites of acutely isolated midbrain dopamine neurons.Maximal doses of glutamate induced a [Ca2+]c rise with similar amplitudes in proximal and distal dendritic regions of a dopamine neuron. Glutamate receptors contributed incrementally to the [Ca2+]c rise according to their distance from the soma, with a reciprocal decrement in the contribution of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOCCs). The contribution of AMPA and NMDA receptors increased with dendritic length, but that of metabotropic glutamate receptors decreased. At low doses of glutamate at which spontaneous firing was sustained, the [Ca2+]c rise was higher in the distal than the proximal regions of a dendrite, possibly due to the increased spontaneous firing rate.These results indicate that functional organization of Ca2+ signals in the dendrites of dopamine neurons requires different combination of VOCCs and glutamate receptors according to dendritic length, and that regional Ca2+ rises in dendrites respond differently to applied glutamate concentration.  相似文献
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Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mediates various responses to stress through CRF receptors 1 and 2. CRF receptor 2 has two forms, 2alpha and 2beta each of which appears to have distinct roles. Here we used dopaminergic neuron-derived MN9D cells to investigate the function of CRF receptor 2 in dopamine neurons. We found that n-butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induced MN9D cell differentiation and increased gene expression of all CRF receptors. CRF receptor 2beta was minimally expressed in MN9D cells; however, its expression dramatically increased during differentiation. CRF receptor 2beta expression levels appeared to correlate with neurite outgrowth, suggesting CRF receptor 2beta involvement in neuronal differentiation. To validate this statement, we made a CRF receptor 2beta-overexpressing MN9D/CRFR2 beta stable cell line. This cell line showed robust neurite outgrowth and GAP43 overexpression, together with MEK and ERK activation, suggesting MN9D cell neuronal differentiation. From these results, we conclude that CRF receptor 2beta plays an important role in MN9D cell differentiation by activating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway.  相似文献
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Dopamine (DA) receptors generate many cellular signals and play various roles in locomotion, motivation, hormone production, and drug abuse. According to the location and expression types of the receptors in the brain, DA signals act in either stimulatory or inhibitory manners. Although DA autoreceptors in the substantia nigra pars compacta are known to regulate firing activity, the exact expression patterns and roles of DA autoreceptor types on the firing activity are highly debated. Therefore, we performed individual correlation studies between firing activity and receptor expression patterns using acutely isolated rat substantia nigra pars compacta DA neurons. When we performed single-cell RT-PCR experiments, D(1), D(2)S, D(2)L, D(3), and D(5) receptor mRNA were heterogeneously expressed in the order of D(2)L > D(2)S > D(3) > D(5) > D(1). Stimulation of D(2) receptors with quinpirole suppressed spontaneous firing similarly among all neurons expressing mRNA solely for D(2)S, D(2)L, or D(3) receptors. However, quinpirole most strongly suppressed spontaneous firing in the neurons expressing mRNA for both D(2) and D(3) receptors. These data suggest that D(2) S, D(2)L, and D(3) receptors are able to equally suppress firing activity, but that D(2) and D(3) receptors synergistically suppress firing. This diversity in DA autoreceptors could explain the various actions of DA in the brain.  相似文献
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Feed ingredients used in swine diets contain various levels and availabilities of nutrients. Nutritional precision evaluation of each ingredient is necessary for formulating diets of pigs. Especially, phosphorous (P) is one of important nutrients for metabolism. However, current data of P digestibility were most apparent digestibility. Therefore, this study was aimed to estimate the coefficient of total tract standardized digestibility (CTTSD) of P in cereals and various co-products used in pig diet. Twelve barrows (initial BW ± SD, 46.70 ± 3.21 kg) were used in this experiment. The experimental design was a 12 × 8 incomplete Latin square with 12 diets and 8 periods. Experimental diets were consisted of barley, wheat, lupine kernel (LK), soybean meal (SBM), almond meal (AM), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed from China (CGF-C), corn gluten feed from Korea (CGF-C), wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), lupine hull (LH) and P-free diet. The CTTAD of Ca was higher in AM than RB and CGF-K. The LK and CGM showed greater CTTSD of P than RB and LH. In conclusion, our results indicated that the cereals and co-products as P sources were the ideally used as an ingredient in mixed diets of the growing-finishing pigs.  相似文献
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