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In greenhouse studies, we evaluated a commercial formulation of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae and the inoculative release of the thrips-parasitic nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi against western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande infesting potted chrysanthemums. Foliar sprays of S. feltiae applied at 1.25-2.5×103 IJ mL-1 and 1000 - 2000 L ha-1 at 3-day intervals alone (targeting feeding stages) or in combination with soil applications (simultaneously treating non-feeding stages in the soil at the same rates) decreased but did not provide adequate control of thrips in flowering plants artificially infested with a dense population. Similar nematode treatments applied for four to five applications at 6-day intervals in two batches of initially clean chrysanthemums failed to prevent unacceptable damage to flowers and leaves from a dense natural infestation within the greenhouse. Although some IJ survived up to 48 h within flowers and flower buds, few nematode-infected thrips (larvae and adults) were recovered. In studies with T. nicklewoodi (which is not amenable for mass production), the inoculative releases of two parasitized hosts per plant enabled the nematode to become established within existing WFT populations under greenhouse conditions. However, relatively poor transmission and slow speed of kill (nematode primarily suppresses populations through host sterilization) prevented low level inoculations being effective over a single crop cycle. Further studies showed that transmission of T. nicklewoodi persisted for nine host generations, infected up to 83% of adult thrips and provided long-term suppression of discrete caged populations, but only after uneconomically high thrips densities had been reached.  相似文献
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The effect of the chemical insecticide, fenitrothion, and a mycoinsecticide based on Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on the activity of non-target epigeal arthropod scavengers was investigated in areas of open savannah in southeast Niger Republic, West Africa. Both insecticides were applied as full cover sprays to unreplicated 800 ha plots to assess their season-long control of Sahelian grasshoppers. Compared with control plots, fenitrothion caused an immediate but temporary reduction in grasshopper numbers, whereas M. anisopliae var. acridum provided delayed but prolonged control. Scavenging rates of pyrethroid-killed grasshoppers placed along transects in unsprayed plots and those treated with fenitrothion and M. anisopliae var. acridum at various intervals after spraying were assessed. In the fenitrothion plot, an immediate reduction in scavenging activity occurred that was still apparent after 40 days at the plot center, although recovery at the plot edges was more rapid. By contrast scavenging rates remained high over equivalent areas in the M. anisopliae var. acridum and two untreated plots. Concurrent to the scavenging study, counts of grasshopper cadavers resulting from the spray treatments were conducted. These counts revealed that the density of grasshopper cadavers remained low throughout the M. anisopliae var. acridum plot and explained <1% of the reduction in live grasshoppers resulting from treatment, compared with >20% in the fenitrothion plot. This shortfall in grasshopper cadavers resulting from the spray treatment in the M. anisopliae var. acridum plot was unexpected because in a monitoring study, fungus-killed (unlike pyrethroid-killed) grasshoppers were unattractive to scavengers and readily persisted in this plot, and thus should have become apparent. Given we did not observe significant grasshopper dispersal, the scarcity of cadavers generated in the M. anisopliae var. acridum plot, together with unquantified visual observations, suggests that predation of infected but living grasshoppers was high. Our data provide circumstantial evidence that the different effects of chemical and biological grasshopper control on grasshopper natural enemies may influence the efficacy of large-scale treatments.  相似文献
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Lakes are among the most productive and biodiverse ecosystems in Antarctica, and they behave as important indicators of local climatic and environmental changes. However, few studies have focused on the local drivers of short-term temporal variability in lacustrine biogeochemical variables. In the present study, measurements of physical, chemical, biological and optical characteristics of the shallow endorheic Lake 14 at Edmonson Point (74.33° S, 165.13° E) were made over the ice-free period in December 2006. A significant variation in most variables was observed. Possible drivers for these changes were the loss of the ice cover, an increase in solar irradiance, a change in photosynthetic activity and the evaporative loss of water. By removing relative changes due to evaporative losses, new insights were gained into the driving factors controlling the biogeochemistry and primary productivity in the shallow Antarctic lake. In particular, a decrease in phytoplankton biomass was observed and was probably linked to photoinhibition as revealed by an increase in photoprotective pigments. The absorbance by dissolved organic matter, when weighted with respect to evaporative loss, shows an overall reduction in humic-like absorption, most likely linked to photodegradation.  相似文献
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Lipids are essential for cellular function as sources of fuel, critical signaling molecules and membrane components. Deficiencies in lipid processing and transport underlie many metabolic diseases. To better understand metabolic function as it relates to disease etiology, a whole animal approach is advantageous, one in which multiple organs and cell types can be assessed simultaneously in vivo. Towards this end, we have developed an assay to visualize fatty acid (FA) metabolism in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). The method utilizes egg yolk liposomes to deliver different chain length FA analogs (BODIPY-FL) to six day-old larvae. Following liposome incubation, larvae accumulate the analogs throughout their digestive organs, providing a comprehensive readout of organ structure and physiology. Using this assay we have observed that different chain length FAs are differentially transported and metabolized by the larval digestive system. We show that this assay can also reveal structural and metabolic defects in digestive mutants. Because this labeling technique can be used to investigate digestive organ morphology and function, we foresee its application in diverse studies of organ development and physiology.  相似文献
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In tropical lakes, the characteristics and dimension of the coastal wetlands can have a strong influence on the quality of the inshore waters. The interaction between littoral wetlands and the open water environment is complex and requires an understanding of the material and energy exchanges between these compartments. In the present analysis, we examine the impact of wetlands on the optical properties (underwater light environment) of two adjacent bays on the Ugandan side of Lake Victoria. We use both irradiance profiles within the water column as well as measurements of the dissolved and particulate fractions of the water column. By introducing a new term to identify that part of the solar spectrum most affected by wetland released dissolved organic matter, it is possible to determine the area of each bay that is influenced by the wetland. Depending on the period of analysis, wetland released chromophoric dissolved organic matter can play a dominating role in the attenuation of UV and visible radiation in the underwater environment.  相似文献
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