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A cladistic biogeographic analysis for the Holarctic and Indo-Chinese regions was undertaken based on seven genera of the tribe Cidariini: Cidaria Treitschke, Thera Stephens, Pennithera Viidalepp, Heterothera Inoue, Callabraxas Butler, Gandaritis Moore and Eulithis Httbner. Smallest coincident ranges of two species recognized 11 endemic areas. The study has two aims: to construct a hierarchical structure of those areas, and to recognize dispersal events. Under two assumptions [widespread taxa mapped (identical as assumption 0) and widespread taxa not mapped (identical as assumption 1)] the 11 endemic areas were mapped with 72 taxa. The best resolved area cladograms under the two assumptions differ in the placement of one endemic area, northern Europe. Area relationships found in this present analysis are congruent with the current landmass configurations: (North America, (Europe, (northern India, (southwestern Asia, (Baikal area, (south China, (Taiwan, (Russian Far East, Japan)))))))). These area cladograms postulate at least three vicariance events: (1) between North America and the Palaearctic; (2) western-eastern Palaearctic; (3) northern India–the rest of Asia. The approach to recognize dispersed taxa by pruning each taxon suggests that most dispersal events occurred in East Asia: from the Baikal area or south China to the Russian Far East; and from the Russian Far East to Japan. Relationships among endemic areas are briefly discussed.  相似文献
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The genus Cidaria Treitschke is revised. Eight species of the genus which occur widely in the Palaearctic and northern India, are recognized, of which one, Cidaria luteata sp. nov. , is described as new while two subspecies of C. fulvata (Forster) are elevated to species, C. nugata Felder stat. rev., and C. distinctata Staudinger stat. nov. C. ochripennis Prout is proposed as a junior synonym of C. ochreata Staudinger. C. deletaria Hampson is excluded from the genus. All species of Cidaria and their genitalia are described and illustrated. The cladistic analysis of these eight species of Cidaria is carried out using two data matrices, the first comprising morphological characters alone and the second morphological and distributional characters. The most parsimonious cladogram of Cidaria is selected, and its monophyly defined. The character analysis shows that some distribution characters contribute to resolving the in group node. The choice of multiple trees is discussed.  相似文献
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