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1.
Biocatalysis for industrial production of fine chemicals   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
Chiral intermediates constitute a significant part of the fine chemicals market, which is strongly influenced by trends in the pharmaceutical industries, where approximately 70% of pharmaceuticals are expected to be enantiomerically pure in the next century as compared to 25% today. The main technologies by which enantiomerically pure ingredients are obtained today are (dynamic) resolutions of racemic mixtures. Asymmetric syntheses are being developed, but their applications in industry are still under represented. Biotechnological methods, resolutions as well as asymmetric syntheses, are becoming increasingly important in the industrial production of fine chemicals.  相似文献
2.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) comprises a group of severe disorders of keratinization, characterized by variable erythema and skin scaling. It is known for its high degree of genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Mutations in the gene for keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1) on chromosome 14q11 were shown in patients with ARCI, and a second locus was described, on chromosome 2q, in families from northern Africa. Three other loci for ARCI, on chromosomes 3p and 19p, were identified recently. We have embarked on a whole-genome scan for further loci for ARCI in four families from Germany, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates. A novel ARCI locus was identified on chromosome 17p, between the markers at D17S938 and D17S1856, with a maximum LOD score of 3.38, at maximum recombination fraction 0.00, at D17S945, under heterogeneity. This locus is linked to the disease in the Turkish family and in the German family. Extensive genealogical studies revealed that the parents of the German patients with ARCI were eighth cousins. By homozygosity mapping, the localization of the gene could then be refined to the 8.4-cM interval between D17S938 and D17S1879. It could be shown, however, that ARCI in the two Arab families is linked neither to the new locus on chromosome 17p nor to one of the five loci known previously. Our findings give evidence of further genetic heterogeneity that is not linked to distinctive phenotypes.  相似文献
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Effects of fire and site type on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balances were determined by following the change of total and component C and N pools along four chronosequences of fire-prone Siberian Scots pine ecosystems. These differed in the mean return interval of surface fires (unburned – moderately burned, 40 years – heavily burned, 25 years) and site quality (lichen versus Vaccinium site type). Of the Vaccinium site type (higher site quality) only a moderately burned chronosequence was studied. A total of 22 even-aged stands were investigated with stand ages ranging from 2 to 383 years. The C balance was dominated by the opposing dynamics of coarse woody debris (CWD) and biomass and could be divided into three phases: (1) Young stands (up to 40 years)acted as a net source for C of 6-10 mol C m-2 year-1 because the previous generation CWD pool originating from stand-replacing crown fires decayed much faster than biomass increased. During this period the C pool in the unburned lichen type chronosequence decreased from 807 to 480 mol C m-2. (2) Middle aged stands (40-100 years) being in a stage of maximum biomass accumulation were a net sink of 8-10 mol C m-2 year-1. (3)Maturestands (100 to > 350 years) continued to sequester C at a lower rate (0.8-2.5mol C m-2 year-1). Differences in the rates of C sequestration during the two later phases could be explained by the complex interaction between surface fire regime and site type. Recurrent surface fires resulted in enhanced mortality and regularly redistributed C from the living to the CWD pool thereby lowering the rate of C sequestration. Site quality determined the potential to recover from disturbance by fire events. Differences in site type did not correlate with soil and total ecosystem N pool size. However, the N status of needles as well as the N pool of physiologically active tissue was highest in the stands of the Vaccinium type. The woody C pool (biomass + CWD) was sensitive to differences in surface fire regime and site type. It was lowest in the heavily burned lichen type chronosequence (297 ± 108 mol C m-2), intermediate in the unburned and moderately burned lichen type chronosequence (571 ± 179 mol C m-2) and highest in the moderately burned Vaccinium type chronosequence (810 ± 334 mol C m-2). In contrast, the total soil C pool (organic plus mineral layer down to a depth of 25 cm) was independent of stand age, surface fire regimeand site type and fluctuated around a value of 250 mol C m-2. The organic layer C pool oscillated in response to recurring surface fires and its C pool was dependent on time since fire increasing at a rate of about 1.5 mol C m-2 year-during the first 40 years and then reaching a plateau of 170 mol C m-2. The total ecosystem N pool was 7.4 ± 1.5 mol N m-2 on average of which only 25 % were stored in biomass or coarse woody debris. Total ecosystem N was independent of stand age, surface fire regime and site type. No correlation was found between total ecosystem C and N pools. Average total ecosystem C:N ratio was 114 ± 35 mol C mol N-1. A conceptual model illustrating how changes in the regime of stand-replacing crown fires and recurrent surface fires and changes in site quality interact in determining the long-term C balance in Siberian Scots pine forests is presented.  相似文献
5.
A rapid, Ca2+-dependent change in the angle between basal bodies (up to 180 degrees) is associated with light-induced reversal of swimming direction (the "photophobic" response) in a number of flagellated green algae. In isolated, detergent-extracted, reactivated flagellar apparatus complexes of Spermatozopsis similis, axonemal beat form conversion to the symmetrical/undulating flagellar pattern and basal body reorientation (from the antiparallel to the parallel configuration) are simultaneously induced at greater than or equal to 10(-7) M Ca2+. Basal body reorientation, however, is independent of flagellar beating since it is induced at greater than or equal to 10(-7) M Ca2+ when flagellar beating is inhibited (i.e., in the presence of 1 microM orthovanadate in reactivation solutions; in the absence of ATP or dithiothreitol in isolation and reactivation solutions), or when axonemes are mechanically removed from flagellar apparatuses. Although frequent axonemal beat form reversals were induced by varying the Ca2+ concentration, antiparallel basal body configuration could not be restored in isolated flagellar apparatuses. Observations of the photophobic response in vivo indicate that even though the flagella resume the asymmetric, breaststroke beat form 1-2 s after photostimulation, antiparallel basal body configuration is not restored until a few minutes later. Using an antibody generated against the 20-kD Ca2+-modulated contractile protein of striated flagellar roots of Tetraselmis striata (Salisbury, J. L., A. Baron, B. Surek, and M. Melkonian, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:962-970), we have found the distal connecting fiber of Spermatozopsis similis to be immunoreactive by indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the antigen of S. similis flagellar apparatuses consists, like the Tetraselmis protein, of two acidic isoforms of 20 kD. We conclude that the distal basal body connecting fiber is a contractile organelle and reorients basal bodies during the photophobic response in certain flagellated green algae.  相似文献
6.
Molecular cloning of the chicken avidin cDNA.   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
A cDNA for chicken avidin was identified in a chicken oviduct cDNA library by screening with antibodies and synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Four recombinant clones were characterized and each contained the sequence of the oligonucleotide probes used in screening. They were capable also of expressing an antigen recognizable by a polyclonal or a mixture of monoclonal antibodies raised against avidin. The longest clone, lambda cAV4, contained the entire coding sequence of avidin along with a signal peptide of 24 amino acids. An avidin mRNA, approximately 700 nucleotides in length, was induced by a single injection of progesterone over a period of twenty four hours. The avidin mRNA was distributed in a tissue-specific manner, since detectable concentration of the mRNA appeared only in the oviduct after stimulation with progesterone alone or with a combination of progesterone and estrogen. No avidin mRNA was detected in the liver or kidney under these conditions. Preliminary results on the genomic complexity of avidin suggest a single copy gene. Isolation of the natural gene for avidin and studies on its regulation now can be initiated using the cDNA probe.  相似文献
7.
In the present study, we investigated a new member of the ABC transporter superfamily of Arabidopsis thaliana, AtMRP5. AtMRP5 encodes a 167 kDa protein and exhibits low glutathione conjugate and glucuronide conjugate transport activity. Promotor- beta-glucuronidase fusion constructs showed that AtMRP5 is expressed mainly in the vascular bundle and in the epidermis, especially guard cells. Using reverse genetics, we identified a plant with a T-DNA insertion in AtMRP5 (mrp5-1). mrp5-1 exhibited decreased root growth and increased lateral root formation. Auxin levels in the roots of mrp5-1 plants were increased. This observation may indicate that AtMRP5 works as an auxin conjugate transporter or that mutant plants are affected in ion uptake, which may lead to changes in auxin concentrations. Experiments on epidermal strips showed that in contrast to wild type, the sulfonylurea glibenclamide had no effect on stomatal opening in mrp5-1 plants. This result strongly suggests that AtMRP5 may also function as an ion channel regulator.  相似文献
8.
The chemokines CX3CL1/Fractalkine and CXCL16 are expressed as transmembrane molecules and can mediate cell-cell-adhesion. By proteolytic processing, CX3CL1 and CXCL16 are released from the cell surface by proteolytic shedding resulting in the generation of soluble chemoattractants. This ectodomain release is mediated by the alpha-secretase-like activity of the two disintegrins and metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17. Using CX3CL1 and CXCL16 constructs C-terminally fused to two Z-domains of Protein A (2Z-tag) we detect C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of both chemokines resulting from ADAM10-mediated cleavages at multiple sites as examined by inhibitor studies. Furthermore, inhibitor studies as well as genetic studies using presenilin 1/2-deficient cell lines suggest the involvement of gamma-secretase-but not beta-secretase-like activity in the processing of transmembrane chemokines. The combination of alpha- and gamma-secretase and proteasomal inhibitors points towards a sequential processing of transmembrane chemokines by first ADAM10 and then gamma-secretases and possible further degradation. This proteolytic processing cascade of transmembrane chemokines is similar to that described for Notch and E-cadherin where CTFs generated by gamma-secretase serve as intracellular signal transmitters.  相似文献
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10.
Comparative studies investigating influences of temperature and time of preincubation on the interactions of an organomercurial agarose gel and p-mercuribenzoate with glucose-6-phosphatase of native and Triton X-114-modified rat liver microsomes were carried out. The effect of p-mercuribenzoate on glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis is a result of two processes, a moderate membrane perturbation connected with release of some latency and temperature- and time-dependent inhibition of the catalytic activity. Short-term preincubation with both organic mercurials at 37 degrees C is a necessary condition for the entire inhibition of the enzyme activity of native as well as of Triton X-114-modified microsomes. A binding site of the phosphohydrolase itself is accessible to p-mercuribenzoate and the phenyl mercury residue of the affinity gel from the cytoplasmic surface even in native microsomes. Kinetic analyses reveal a formally competitive mechanism of inhibition using native microsomes, but the kinetic picture changes to a noncompetitive pattern of Lineweaver-Burk plots when the inhibitor-loaded microsomes are modified optimally by Triton X-114. This behavior can be evaluated as the first convincing evidence for drastic changes of the conformational status of the phosphohydrolase during the membrane modification process. A combined conformational flexibility-substrate transport model characterizing the microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase as an integral channel-protein embedded within the hydrophobic interior of the membrane is proposed.  相似文献
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