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排序方式: 共有705条查询结果,搜索用时 78 毫秒
1.
Tumor-specific antigen of murine T-lymphoma defined with monoclonal antibody   总被引:71,自引:0,他引:71  
A panel of hybridomas was constructed by fusion of P3X63Ag8 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse that had been immunized with a C57BL/Ka x-ray-induced lymphoma, C6XL. One of forty-three hybridomas secreting antibodies reactive with the tumor cells was found to be unreactive with normal spleen cells in a radioimmunometric assay. This antibody, designated 124-40, was unreactive with normal adult thymus, spleen, lymph node, or bone marrow cells, or with fetal spleen or thymus cells in radioimmunometric or radioimmunoprecipitation assays. Flow microfluorometric analysis of these nonmalignant lymphoid cells failed to reveal subpopulations reactive with MAb 124-40. The antibody was highly specific for the lymphoma cells used for immunization and did not react with a panel of other spontaneous or x-ray-induced or chemically induced lymphomas. The antigen reactive with MAb 124-40 was isolated by radioimmunoprecipitation and found to be a glycoprotein composed of disulfide-bonded subunits of 39,000 m.w. and 41,000 m.w. A cell surface component of similar structure, but not reactive with MAb 124-40 could be detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis in extracts of purified T cells, but not B cells. These results suggest that the apparently individually specific lymphoma antigen reactive with MAb 124-40 might be a clonally expressed epitope carried by a T cell surface component.  相似文献
2.
Lymphocyte homing is controlled by organ-specific interactions of lymphocytes and high endothelial venules (HEV). Adhesion of lymphocytes to Peyer's patch HEV, but not to peripheral node HEV, is inhibited by an antibody recognizing the murine lymphocyte antigen LPAM-1. Lymphoma cell variants were selected on the FACS for differences in LPAM-1 expression: the binding capacity of these variants to Peyer's patch HEV directly correlates with the level of LPAM-1 expression. The anti-LPAM-1 antibody recognizes the alpha subunit of an Mr 160,000/130,000 cell surface alpha beta heterodimer. The association of LPAM-1 alpha and beta chains requires the presence of Ca2+ ions. Proteins of Mr 84,000 and Mr 62,000 present in LPAM-1 immunoprecipitates appear to be products of the proteolytic processing of alpha chains. The structure of LPAM-1 is virtually identical to that of the human integrin receptor VLA-4. The cross-reactivity of a monospecific rabbit antiserum demonstrated the similarity between the human VLA-4 alpha chain and the alpha subunit of LPAM-1.  相似文献
3.
The adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to vascular endothelial cells (EC) is an early and fundamental event in acute inflammation. This process requires the regulated expression of molecules on both the EC and PMN. EC stimulated with histamine or thrombin coexpress two proadhesive molecules within minutes: granule membrane protein 140 (GMP-140), a member of the selectin family, and platelet-activating factor (PAF), a biologically active phospholipid. Coexpression of GMP-140 and PAF is required for maximal PMN adhesion and the two molecules act in a cooperative fashion. The component of adhesion mediated by EC-associated PAF requires activation of CD11/CD18 integrins on the PMN and binding of these heterodimers to counterreceptors on the EC. GMP-140 also binds to a receptor on the PMN; however, it tethers the PMN to the EC without requiring activation of CD11/CD18 integrins. This component of the adhesive interaction is blocked by antibodies to GMP-140 or by GMP-140 in the fluid phase. Experiments with purified GMP-140 indicate that binding to its receptor on the PMN does not directly induce PMN adhesiveness but that it potentiates the CD11/CD18-dependent adhesive response to PAF by a mechanism that involves events distal to the PAF receptor. Tethering of the PMN to the EC by GMP-140 may also be required for efficient interaction of PAF with its receptor on the PMN. These observations define a complex cell recognition system in which tethering of PMNs by a selectin, GMP-140, facilitates juxtacrine activation of the leukocytes by a signaling molecule, PAF. The latter event recruits the third component of the adhesive interaction, the CD11/CD18 integrins.  相似文献
4.
A TRP channel that senses cold stimuli and menthol   总被引:47,自引:0,他引:47  
A distinct subset of sensory neurons are thought to directly sense changes in thermal energy through their termini in the skin. Very little is known about the molecules that mediate thermoreception by these neurons. Vanilloid Receptor 1 (VR1), a member of the TRP family of channels, is activated by noxious heat. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of TRPM8, a distant relative of VR1. TRPM8 is specifically expressed in a subset of pain- and temperature-sensing neurons. Cells overexpressing the TRPM8 channel can be activated by cold temperatures and by a cooling agent, menthol. Our identification of a cold-sensing TRP channel in a distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons implicates an expanded role for this family of ion channels in somatic sensory detection.  相似文献
5.
The present studies were performed to explore potentially selective mechanisms of leukocyte adhesion in an attempt to understand how preferential recruitment of eosinophils and basophils might occur during allergic and other inflammatory reactions. Stimulation of human vascular endothelial cells for 24 h with IL-4 (30 to 1,000 U/ml) induced adhesion for eosinophils (up to approximately four-fold of control) and basophils (up to approximately twofold of control) but not neutrophils (less than 125% of control). Analysis of endothelial expression of adhesion molecules by flow cytometry revealed that IL-4 treatment induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression without significantly affecting the expression of other adhesion molecules, namely endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) or intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The concentration-response curve for IL-4-induced VCAM-1 expression paralleled that for adhesion. Endothelial cells stimulated with IL-4 expressed adhesive properties for eosinophils by 3 h; the response increased steadily during a 24-h time course study. Eosinophils and basophils adhered to plates coated with a recombinant form of VCAM-1. This adhesion was blocked with antibodies to VCAM-1 but not ELAM-1. mAb directed against either VCAM-1 or VLA-4 inhibited (by approximately 75%) the binding of eosinophils and basophils to IL-4-stimulated endothelial cells. Because VLA-4 and VCAM-1 have been demonstrated to bind to each other in other adhesion systems, these results suggest that IL-4 stimulates eosinophil and basophil adhesion by inducing endothelial cell expression of VCAM-1 which binds to eosinophil and basophil VLA-4. The lack of expression of VLA-4 on neutrophils and the failure of IL-4 to stimulate neutrophil adherence support this conclusion. It is proposed that local release of IL-4 in vivo in allergic diseases or after experimental allergen challenge may partly explain the enrichment of eosinophils and basophils (vs neutrophils) observed in these situations.  相似文献
6.
The initial step in extravasation of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) to the extravascular space is adherence to the endothelium. We examined the effect of oxidants on this process by treating human endothelial cells with H2O2, t-butylhydroperoxide, or menadione. This resulted in a surface adhesive for PMN between 1 and 4 h after exposure. The oxidants needed to be present only for a brief period at the initiation of the assay. Adhesion was an endothelial cell-dependent process that did not require an active response from the PMN. The adhesive molecule was not platelet-activating factor, which mediates PMN adherence when endothelial cells are briefly exposed to higher concentrations of H2O2 (Lewis, M. S., R. E. Whatley, P. Cain, T. M. McIntyre, S. M. Prescott, and G. A. Zimmerman. 1988. J. Clin. Invest. 82:2045-2055), nor was it ELAM-1, an adhesive glycoprotein induced by cytokines. Oxidant-induced adhesion did not require protein synthesis, was inhibited by antioxidants, and, when peroxides were the oxidants, was inhibited by intracellular iron chelators. Granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140) is a membrane-associated glycoprotein that can be translocated from its intracellular storage pool to the surface of endothelial cells where it acts as a ligand for PMN adhesion (Geng, J.-G., M. P. Bevilacqua, K. L. Moore, T. M. McIntyre, S. M. Prescott, J. M. Kim, G. A. Bliss, G. A. Zimmerman, and R. P. McEver. 1990. Nature (Lond). 343:757-760). We found that endothelial cells exposed to oxidants expressed GMP-140 on their surface, and that an mAb against GMP-140 or solubilized GMP-140 completely blocked PMN adherence to oxidant-treated endothelial cells. Thus, exposure of endothelial cells to oxygen radicals induces the prolonged expression of GMP-140 on the cell surface, which results in enhanced PMN adherence.  相似文献
7.
Mammals detect temperature with specialized neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Four TRPV-class channels have been implicated in sensing heat, and one TRPM-class channel in sensing cold. The combined range of temperatures that activate these channels covers a majority of the relevant physiological spectrum sensed by most mammals, with a significant gap in the noxious cold range. Here, we describe the characterization of ANKTM1, a cold-activated channel with a lower activation temperature compared to the cold and menthol receptor, TRPM8. ANKTM1 is a distant family member of TRP channels with very little amino acid similarity to TRPM8. It is found in a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons where it is coexpressed with TRPV1/VR1 (the capsaicin/heat receptor) but not TRPM8. Consistent with the expression of ANKTM1, we identify noxious cold-sensitive sensory neurons that also respond to capsaicin but not to menthol.  相似文献
8.
Although IL-1 is an important modulator of chondrocyte metabolism, the postreceptor events triggered by IL-1 remain obscure. The present study shows that IL-1 induces the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (.N = O) by articular chondrocytes. Synthesis of .N = O is also induced by LPS. Other inflammatory mediators such as IFN-gamma, fibroblast growth factor, and TNF-alpha fail to provoke the production of .N = O, but they increase the potency of IL-1. A combination of IL-1, LPS, and TNF-alpha was shown to induce maximal production of 355 +/- 51 nmol/10(6) cells/72 h of nitrite (NO2-), which was measured as a stable end-product of .N = O generation. The biosynthesis of .N = O requires an induction period of approximately 6 h and continues for at least 72 h. Inhibition of .N = O production with the competitive inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMA) leads to a suppression of gelatinase and PGE2 synthesis by chondrocytes activated with IL-1 alone. In contrast, NMA enhances the synthesis of both gelatinase and PGE2 after activation with a combination of IL-1, LPS, and TNF-alpha. An increase of PGE2 synthesis from 42.0 +/- 21.0 to 174.0 +/- 33.5 ng/10(6) cells/72 h resulted from the addition of NMA when these stimulatory agents were combined. Exposure of IL-1 and fibroblast growth factor-stimulated chondrocytes to authentic, exogenous .N = O led to an increase of PGE2 synthesis from 5.6 +/- 1.7 of untreated cells to 15.8 +/- 6.8 ng/10(6) of .N = O treated cells within the 1st h. This was followed by a suppression of PGE2 synthesis within the next 2 h.  相似文献
9.
The binding of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) to endothelial cells (ECs) presents special requirements in the regulation of intercellular adhesion. ECs that are stimulated by certain agonists, including thrombin and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1), generate molecular signals that induce the adhesion of PMNs (endothelial cell-dependent neutrophil adhesion). Our experiments demonstrate that the mechanism of binding induced by thrombin is distinct from that induced by the cytokines based on the time courses, the requirement for protein synthesis, and differential binding of HL60 promyelocytic leukemia cells to ECs activated by the two classes of agonists. The rapid EC-dependent PMN adhesion (initiated in minutes) that occurs when the ECs are stimulated by thrombin is temporally coupled with the accumulation of platelet-activating factor, a biologically active phosphoglyceride that remains associated with ECs and that activates PMNs by binding to a cell surface receptor. A portion of the newly synthesized platelet-activating factor (PAF) is on the EC surface, as demonstrated by experiments in which the rate of hydrolysis of PAF synthesized by activated ECs was accelerated by extracellular PAF acetylhydrolase. When ECs were treated with exogenous PAF they became adhesive for PMNs; the PMN binding was prevented by incubating the ECs with PAF acetylhydrolase or by treating the PMNs with competitive PAF receptor antagonists. Thus PAF associated with the EC plasma membrane induces PMN binding, an observation supported by experiments in which PAF in model membranes (liposomes) stimulated rapid PMN adhesion to ECs and to cell-free surfaces. In addition, competitive antagonists of the PAF receptor inhibited the binding of PMNs to ECs activated by thrombin and other rapidly acting agonists, but not to ECs activated by tumor necrosis factor alpha, indicating that PAF that is endogenously synthesized by ECs can mediate neutrophil adhesion. These experiments demonstrate a novel mechanism by which a cell-associated phospholipid, PAF, can serve as a signal for an intercellular adhesive event.  相似文献
10.
B W McIntyre  J P Allison 《Cell》1983,34(3):739-746
We have previously demonstrated that T lymphomas may express clonally specific epitopes that are carried by a T-cell-restricted, disulfide-bonded heterodimeric glycoprotein. We have used a monoclonal antibody, 124-40, to isolate the lymphoma-specific antigen and raise a xenoantiserum to the molecule. This antiserum immunoprecipitates a family of disulfide-bonded dimers from normal thymocytes and T cells, but is unreactive with B cells. Peptide maps prepared after limited proteolytic digestion indicate that the molecules from the different cell populations have homologous primary structures. Comparison of two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps indicate that, in addition to several common peptides, the molecules exhibit considerable structural heterogeneity. Taken together, these data indicate that the T-cell-specific heteroduplex has regions of constant and variable structure consistent with the properties expected for the T cell antigen receptor.  相似文献
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