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1.
We have demonstrated previously that the oncoprotein Mdm2 has a ubiquitin ligase activity for the tumor suppressor p53 protein. In the present study, we characterize this ubiquitin ligase activity of Mdm2. We first demonstrate the ubiquitination of several p53 point mutants and deletion mutants by Mdm2. The point mutants, which cannot bind to Mdm2, are not ubiquitinated by Mdm2. The ubiquitination of the C-terminal deletion mutants, which contain so-called Mdm2-binding sites, is markedly decreased, compared with that of wild-type p53. The binding of Mdm2 to p53 is essential for ubiquitination, but p53's tertiary structure and/or C-terminal region may also be important for this reaction. DNA-dependent protein kinase is known to phosphorylate p53 on Mdm2-binding sites, where DNA damage induces phosphorylation, and p53 phosphorylated by this kinase is not a good substrate for Mdm2. This suggests that DNA damage-induced phosphorylation stabilizes p53 by inhibiting its ubiquitination by Mdm2. We further investigated whether the tumor suppressor p19(ARF) affects the ubiquitin ligase activity of Mdm2 for p53. The activity of p19(ARF)-bound Mdm2 was found to be lower than that of free Mdm2, suggesting that p19(ARF) promotes the stabilization of p53 by inactivating Mdm2.  相似文献
2.
When BHK21 cells synchronized in early S phase were exposed to okadaic acid (OA), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, mitosis specific events such as premature chromosome condensation, the production of MPM-2 antigens, dispersion of nuclear lamins and the appearance of mitotic asters were induced, and then disappeared upon further incubation. These mitosis specific events occurred even in the presence of cycloheximide. Within 1 h of exposure to OA, cdc2/histone H1 kinase activity rose 10-fold compared with untreated controls, but returned to the control level upon further incubation. Using antibodies against either p34cdc2 or cyclin B it was found that p34cdc2 complexed with cyclin B was dephosphorylated after OA treatment concomitant with the activation of cdc2 kinase, and that cyclin B was subsequently degraded concomitant with a decrease in cdc2 kinase activity, as in normal mitosis. In contrast, when cells in G1 phase were treated with OA no increase in cdc2 kinase activity was observed. Moreover when cells in pseudo-metaphase induced by nocodazole were treated with OA, cdc2 kinase was inactivated. These results suggest that OA sensitive protein phosphatases control both the activation and inactivation of the p34cdc2 kinase.  相似文献
3.
Brassinolide (BL), considered to be the most important brassinosteroid (BR) and playing pivotal roles in the hormonal regulation of plant growth and development, was found to induce disease resistance in plants. To study the potentialities of BL activity on stress responding systems, we analyzed its ability to induce disease resistance in tobacco and rice plants. Wild-type tobacco treated with BL exhibited enhanced resistance to the viral pathogen tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pst), and the fungal pathogen Oidium sp. The measurement of salicylic acid (SA) in wild-type plants treated with BL and the pathogen infection assays using NahG transgenic plants indicate that BL-induced resistance does not require SA biosynthesis. BL treatment did not induce either acidic or basic pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, suggesting that BL-induced resistance is distinct from systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and wound-inducible disease resistance. Analysis using brassinazole 2001, a specific inhibitor for BR biosynthesis, and the measurement of BRs in TMV-infected tobacco leaves indicate that steroid hormone-mediated disease resistance (BDR) plays part in defense response in tobacco. Simultaneous activation of SAR and BDR by SAR inducers and BL, respectively, exhibited additive protective effects against TMV and Pst, indicating that there is no cross-talk between SAR- and BDR-signaling pathway downstream of BL. In addition to the enhanced resistance to a broad range of diseases in tobacco, BL induced resistance in rice to rice blast and bacterial blight diseases caused by Magnaporthe grisea and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, respectively. Our data suggest that BDR functions in the innate immunity system of higher plants including dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species.  相似文献
4.
A synthetic peptide substrate for selective assay of protein kinase C.   总被引:24,自引:0,他引:24  
Among various phosphate acceptor proteins and peptides so far tested, a synthetic peptide having the sequence surrounding Ser(8) of myelin basic protein, Gln-Lys-Arg-Pro-Ser(8)-Gln-Arg-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu, (MBP4-14), is the most specific and convenient substrate which can be used for selective assay of protein kinase C. This peptide is not phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, casein kinases I and II, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, or phosphorylase kinase, and can be routinely used for the assay of protein kinase C with low background in the crude tissue extracts. The Km value is considerably low (7 microM) with a Vmax value of twice as much as that for H1 histone.  相似文献
5.
Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) found in sera from patients with SLE react with cardiolipin (CL) in the presence of a 50-kDa serum cofactor. The cofactor, which was identified to be beta 2-glycoprotein I by sequencing the N-terminal amino acids, not only enhances CL binding by antibodies in SLE but also depresses it by antibodies associated with syphilis. Cofactor-dependent binding of aCL in SLE to solid phase CL was competitively inhibited by the simultaneous addition of fluid phase CL but was unaffected by either prior or simultaneous addition of a high excess of the cofactor. Binding of aCL in syphilis to solid phase CL was competitively inhibited by either addition of the cofactor or fluid phase CL. aCL in SLE reacted with CL, PS, and PA in the presence of cofactor. In contrast, biotinyl-cofactor bound directly to these anionic phospholipids (PL) and also to PG. These results show that the cofactor-CL complex bears an epitope that confers recognition specificity for aCL in SLE, in contrast with direct CL recognition by syphilitic aCL. The direct binding of the cofactor to PL suggests that the cofactor dependence of aCL binding to PL is due to recognition by aCL of a unique epitope generated upon the formation of the cofactor-CL complex.  相似文献
6.
A cosmid library of the Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 chromosome was constructed in which clones were assigned to locations on the chromosome map by hybridization and genetic marker complementation tests. Approximately 70% of the genome was represented by this library. The identified clones can be maintained in the homologous system and would facilitate genetic studies of E. coli.  相似文献
7.
H Sakura  T Maekawa  F Imamoto  K Yasuda  S Ishii 《Gene》1988,73(2):499-507
Two cDNAs encoding new DNA-binding proteins (Dbps) have been cloned using a human placenta lambda gt11 recombinant cDNA library and DNA fragments as probes. Hybrid proteins expressed by the lambda gt11 cDNA library were blotted onto nitrocellulose filters, and incubated with three different radio-labeled DNA probes containing the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor enhancer or the human c-erbB-2 promoter. Two kinds of clones, named dbpA and dbpB, showed high affinities for the DNA probes. The comparison of the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences between these two cDNAs indicated that 100 of 109 aa located in the central region of these two Dbps were identical. The dbpA and dbpB-coded proteins also had an affinity for other cDNA probes such as the human c-ski gene, but not for poly(dI-dC).poly(dI-dC), suggesting that the sequence(s) recognized by the dbpA and dbpB-coded proteins may occur frequently, or that these proteins bind to DNA non-specifically in a different manner from that of histones. A simple method, described in this paper, can be used to isolate cDNA clones encoding Dbps. Strategies used for the detection of sequence-specific and non-specific Dbps are discussed.  相似文献
8.
L-Maf,a downstream target of Pax6, is essential for chick lens development   总被引:22,自引:0,他引:22  
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis is an important part of bone formation. To clarify the role of VEGF isoforms in endochondral bone formation, we examined long bone development in mice expressing exclusively the VEGF120 isoform (VEGF120/120 mice). Neonatal VEGF120/120 long bones showed a completely disturbed vascular pattern, concomitant with a 35% decrease in trabecular bone volume, reduced bone growth and a 34% enlargement of the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone of the growth plate. Surprisingly, embryonic hindlimbs at a stage preceding capillary invasion exhibited a delay in bone collar formation and hypertrophic cartilage calcification. Expression levels of marker genes of osteoblast and hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation were significantly decreased in VEGF120/120 bones. Furthermore, inhibition of all VEGF isoforms in cultures of embryonic cartilaginous metatarsals, through the administration of a soluble receptor chimeric protein (mFlt-1/Fc), retarded the onset and progression of ossification, suggesting that osteoblast and/or hypertrophic chondrocyte development were impaired. The initial invasion by osteoclasts and endothelial cells into VEGF120/120 bones was retarded, associated with decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Our findings indicate that expression of VEGF164 and/or VEGF188 is important for normal endochondral bone development, not only to mediate bone vascularization but also to allow normal differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, osteoblasts, endothelial cells and osteoclasts.  相似文献
9.
On the basis of the observation that dnaA protein binds preferentially to DNA fragments carrying the Escherichia coli chromosomal replication origin (oriC), the binding sites were investigated by DNase I footprinting. As a result, three strong binding sites were identified in the minimal oriC sequence. The respective binding sites were 16 to 17 base-pairs long, and contained a common sequence (5') T-G-T-G-(G/T)-A-T-A-A-C (3') in the middle, although their polarities were not the same. Since mutants defective in function for autonomous replication have been isolated in the corresponding positions of the common sequence at each binding site, dnaA protein-binding at these sites seems to be significant for replication initiation.  相似文献
10.
Mitosis is a highly coordinated process that assures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Errors in this process result in aneuploidy which can lead to cell death or oncogenesis. In this paper we describe a putative mammalian protein kinase, AIM-1 (Aurora and Ipl1-like midbody-associated protein), related to Drosophila Aurora and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ipl1, both of which are required for chromosome segregation. AIM-1 message and protein accumulate at G2/M phase. The protein localizes at the equator of central spindles during late anaphase and at the midbody during telophase and cytokinesis. Overexpression of kinase-inactive AIM-1 disrupts cleavage furrow formation without affecting nuclear division. Furthermore, cytokinesis frequently fails, resulting in cell polyploidy and subsequent cell death. These results strongly suggest that AIM-1 is required for proper progression of cytokinesis in mammalian cells.  相似文献
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