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1.
Structure and gene organization in the transformed Hind III-G fragment of Ad12   总被引:41,自引:0,他引:41  
The nucleotide sequence of the transforming Hind III-G fragment of Ad12 DNA which encompasses the left 6.8% of the genome has been determined. The fragment was 2320 nucleotides long, and contained a GC cluster at positions 126-155 and a region extremely rich in AT at positions 1098-1142 (number from the leftmost end). Possible coding regions for the two transforming gene products were assigned. The predicted coding region for T antigen g is positions 502-1069 and positions 1144-1373, which are joined by splicing (266 amino acid residues, 30 kd), and that for T antigen f is positions 1845-2126 (94 amino acid residues, 10 kd). The sequence of the Hind III-G fragment was compared with that of the transforming DNA fragment of Ad5 which encompasses the left 8.0% of the genome (2809 nucleotides). There are several discrete regions with significant sequence homology. The comparison suggests that the regions in the left two thirds of the Ad5 and Ad12 transforming DNA fragments (map units 0-4.7% in Ad5 and 0-4.4% in Ad12) bear some resemblance in their gene organizations, and code for proteins containing structurally homologous regions.  相似文献
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NMR studies of a DNA containing 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine.   总被引:13,自引:6,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
The effects of hydroxylation at the C8 of a deoxyguanosine residue in DNA were studied by NMR analysis of a self-complementary dodecanucleotide, d(C1-G2-C3-oh8G4-A5-A6-T7-T8-C9-G10-C11-G12), which has an 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh8dG) residue at the 4th position. NMR data indicate that the 8-hydroxyguanine (oh8G) base takes a 6,8-diketo tautomeric form and is base-paired to C with Watson-Crick type hydrogen bonds in a B-form structure. The thermal stability of the duplex is reduced, but the overall structure is much the same as that of the unmodified d(CGCGAATTCGCG) duplex. The structural changes caused by 8-hydroxylation of the deoxyguanosine, if any, are localized near the modification site.  相似文献
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Reduced early alcohol-induced liver injury in CD14-deficient mice   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Activation of Kupffer cells by gut-derived endotoxin is associated with alcohol-induced liver injury. Recently, it was shown that CD14-deficient mice are more resistant to endotoxin-induced shock than wild-type controls. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of CD14 receptors in early alcohol-induced liver injury using CD14 knockout and wild-type BALB/c mice in a model of enteral ethanol delivery. Animals were given a high-fat liquid diet continuously with ethanol or isocaloric maltose-dextrin as control for 4 wk. The liver to body weight ratio in wild-type mice (5.8 +/- 0.3%) was increased significantly by ethanol (7.3 +/- 0.2%) but was not altered by ethanol in CD14-deficient mice. Ethanol elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels nearly 3-fold in wild-type mice, but not in CD14-deficient mice. Wild-type and knockout mice given the control high-fat diet had normal liver histology, whereas ethanol caused severe liver injury (steatosis, inflammation, and necrosis; pathology score = 3.8 +/- 0.4). In contrast, CD14-deficient mice given ethanol showed minimal hepatic changes (score = 1.6 +/- 0.3, p < 0.05). Additionally, NF-kappa B, TGF-beta, and TNF-alpha were increased significantly in wild-type mice fed ethanol but not in the CD14 knockout. Thus, chronic ethanol feeding caused more severe liver injury in wild-type than CD14 knockouts, supporting the hypothesis that endotoxin acting via CD14 plays a major role in the development of early alcohol-induced liver injury.  相似文献
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The unintegrated closed circular form of viral DNA prepared from NIH3T3 cells infected with Kirsten murine sarcoma virus was cloned into bacterial plasmid pBR322. The closed circular DNA, which consisted of two different-sized populations, was enriched from the virus-infected cells, linearized with BamHI, and inserted into pBR322 DNA. Four different recombinant DNAs (clones 2, 4, 6, and 7) were obtained, and a physical map of each was constructed by using various restriction enzymes. Clone 4 DNA had the largest insertion, corresponding to a complete copy of the linear DNA. This suggested that this insertion contained two copies of the 0.55-kilobase pair long terminal redundant sequence. Clone 2 and clone 6 insertion DNAs had deletions of 0.2 and 0.5 kilobase pair, respectively, which mapped near the right end (3' side of viral RNA) of the linear DNA. Clone 7 DNA appeared to have a deletion of a single copy of the large terminal redundant sequence. Transfection of BALB3T3 cells with the clone 4 DNA insertion showed that this DNA had transforming activity. The efficiency of transfection with clone 4 Kirsten murine sarcoma virus DNA was enhanced eightfold by inserting EcoRI-cleaved viral DNA into the EcoRI site of pBR322. The EcoRI-inserted DNA produced foci with single-hit kinetics, suggesting that a single molecule of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus DNA can induce transformation. Results of transfections with EcoRI-inserted Kirsten murine sarcoma virus DNA cleaved with various restriction enzymes suggested that the first 3.3-kilobase pair region at the left end of the linear DNA is important for the initiation of transformation or maintenance of transformation or both.  相似文献
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Mitochondria are thought to play a major role in hepatic oxidative stress associated with alcohol-induced liver injury. Thus, the hypothesis that delivery of the mitochondrial isoform of superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) via recombinant adenovirus would reduce alcohol-induced liver injury was tested. Rats were given recombinant adenovirus containing Mn-SOD (Ad.SOD2) or beta-galactosidase (Ad.lacZ) and then fed alcohol enterally for 4 weeks. Mn-SOD expression and activity of Ad.SOD2 in liver mitochondria of infected animals was increased nearly 3-fold compared with Ad.lacZ-infected controls. Mitochondrial glutathione levels in Ad.lacZ-infected animals were decreased after 4 weeks of chronic ethanol, as expected, but were unchanged in Ad.SOD2-infected animals. Alanine aminotransferase was elevated significantly by ethanol, an effect that was prevented by Ad.SOD2. Moreover, pathology (e.g. the sum of steatosis, inflammation, and necrosis) was elevated dramatically by ethanol in Ad.lacZ-treated rats. This effect was also blunted in animals infected with Ad.SOD2. Neutrophil infiltration was increased about 3-fold in livers from both Ad.lacZ- and Ad.SOD2-infected rats by ethanol treatment. Moreover, ESR-detectable free radical adducts in bile were increased about 8-fold by ethanol. Using (13)C-labeled ethanol, it was determined that nearly 60% of total adducts were due to the alpha-hydroxyethyl radical adduct. This increase in radical formation was blocked completely by Ad.SOD2 infection. Furthermore, apoptosis of hepatocytes was increased about 5-fold by ethanol, an effect also blocked by Ad.SOD2. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA was elevated to the same extent in both Ad.lacZ- and Ad.SOD2-infected animals follows ethanol exposure. These data suggest that hepatocyte mitochondrial oxidative stress is involved in alcohol-induced liver damage and likely follows Kupffer cell activation, cytokine production, and neutrophil infiltration. These results also support the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidant production is a critical factor in parenchymal cell death caused by alcohol.  相似文献
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Stresses that impair the function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lead to an accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER. Under these conditions, the expression of a variety of genes involved in preventing the accumulation of the unfolded proteins is induced. Yeast Hrd1p is an ER stress-inducible ER membrane protein that acts as a ubiquitin ligase (E3) with a RING finger motif and plays a role in the ubiquitination of proteins in the ER. We report here the identification and characterization of a human homolog to yeast Hrd1p. The predicted structures are highly conserved from yeast to humans. Indeed, human HRD1 was localized to the ER and ubiquitinated its substrates. Furthermore, it was found that human HRD1 was up-regulated by ER stress via IRE1 and ATF6, which are ER stress transducers. Interestingly, 293 cells stably expressing wild-type HRD1, but not the C329S mutant, afforded resistance to ER stress-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the production of HRD1 is up-regulated to protect against ER stress-induced apoptosis by degrading unfolded proteins accumulated in the ER.  相似文献
8.
Considerable evidence for a role of Kupffer cells in alcoholic liver disease has accumulated and they have recently been shown to be a predominant source of free radicals. Several approaches including pharmacological agents, knockout mice, and viral gene transfer have been used to fill critical gaps in understanding key mechanisms by which Kupffer cell activation, oxidant formation, and cytokine production lead to liver damage and subsequent pathogenesis. This review highlights new data in support of the hypothesis that Kupffer cells play a pivotal role in hepatotoxicity due to ethanol by producing oxidants via NADPH oxidase.  相似文献
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