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1.
Recent results showing that a single fibronectin gene can give rise to several different mRNAs by alternative splicing have offered an explanation for fibronectin polymorphism. Here we report on monoclonal antibodies that show specificity for a fibronectin segment (ED) that can be included or omitted from the molecule depending on the pattern of splicing of the mRNA precursors. Using these monoclonals, we have quantitatively analyzed the expression of the ED sequence in human fibronectin from different sources. The results demonstrated that, at the protein level, the ED segment is not expressed in plasma fibronectin and that, in fibronectin from the tissue culture medium of tumor-derived or simian virus-40-transformed human cells, the percentage of fibronectin molecules containing the ED segment is about 10 times higher than in fibronectin from normal human fibroblasts. These results suggest that in malignant cells the mechanisms that regulate the splicing of mRNA precursors are altered.  相似文献
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Ameliorative effects of few naturally occurring antioxidants like ascorbic acid (vitamin C), alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) either alone or in combination with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) or monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA), on parameters indicative of oxidative stress in the liver, kidney, brain and blood of lead-exposed rats were studied. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 0.1% lead acetate in drinking water for 3 months and treated thereafter with DMSA or its analogue MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), either individually or in combination with vitamin E (5 mg/kg, intramuscularly) or vitamin C (25 mg/kg, orally) once daily for 5 days. The effects of these treatments in influencing the lead-induced alterations in haem synthesis pathway, hepatic, renal and brain oxidative stress and lead concentration from the soft tissues were investigated. Exposure to lead produced a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity from 8.44+/-0.26 in control animals to 1.76+/-0.32 in lead control, reduction in glutathione (GSH) from 3.56+/-0.14 to 2.57+/-0.25 and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin level from 62.0+/-3.9 to 170+/-10.7 in blood, suggesting altered haem synthesis pathway. Both the thiol chelators and the two vitamins were able to increase blood ALAD activity towards normal, however, GSH level responded favorably only to the two thiol chelators. The most prominent effect on blood ALAD activity was, however, observed when MiADMSA was co-administered with vitamin C (7.51+/-0.17). Lead exposure produced a significant depletion of hepatic GSH from 4.59+/-0.78 in control animals to 2.27+/-0.47 in lead controls and catalase activity from 100+/-3.4 to 22.1+/-0.25, while oxidized glutathione (GSSG; 0.34+/-0.05 to 2.05+/-0.25), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS; 1.70+/-0.45 to 5.22+/-0.50) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels (3.41+/-0.09 to 6.17+/-0.65) increased significantly, pointing to hepatic oxidative stress. Altered, reduced and oxidized GSH levels showed significant recovery after MiADMSA and DMSA administration while, vitamins E and C were effective in reducing GSSG and TBARS levels and increasing catalase activity. Administration of MiADMSA alone and the combined administration of vitamin C along with DMSA and MiADMSA were most effective in increasing hepatic GSH levels to 4.88+/-0.14, 4.09+/-0.12 and 4.30+/-0.06, respectively. Hepatic catalase also reached near normal level in animals co-administered vitamin C with DMSA or MiADMSA (82.5+/-4.5 and 84.2+/-3.5, respectively). Combined treatments with vitamins and the thiol chelators were also able to effectively reduce lead-induced decrease in renal catalase activity and increase in TBARS and GPx level. Combination therapy, however, was unable to provide an effective reversal in the altered parameters indicative of oxidative stress in different brain regions, except in catalase activity. The result also suggests a beneficial role of vitamin E when administered along with the thiol chelators (particularly with MiADMSA) in reducing body lead burden. Blood lead concentration was reduced from 13.3+/-0.11 in lead control to 0.3+/-0.01 in MiADMSA plus vitamin E-treated rats. Liver and kidney lead concentration also showed a most prominent decrease in MiADMSA plus vitamin E co-administered rats (5.29+/-0.16 to 0.63+/-0.02 and 14.1+/-0.21 to 1.51+/-0.13 in liver and kidney, respectively). These results thus suggest that vitamin C administration during chelation with DMSA/MiADMSA was significantly beneficial in reducing oxidative stress however, it had little or no additive effect on the depletion of lead compared with the effect of chelators alone. Thus, the co-administration of vitamin E during chelation treatment with DMSA or MiADMSA could be recommended for achieving optimum effects of chelation therapy.  相似文献
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Reverse-phase supports for the separation of peptides and proteins are compared in two high-performance liquid chromatographic systems. One uses a trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile solvent system with a 206-nm detector, and the other uses pyridine-formate or pyridine-acetate and 1-propanol with a postcolumn fluorescence detector. Each system was examined with RP8, RP18, and alkylphenyl supports. In most applications, the trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile solvent system used in conjunction with an alkylphenyl column performed best. The use of this system for the preparation of low-microgram amounts of samples for microsequence analysis is illustrated.  相似文献
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Inhibition of enzyme activities by free fatty acids   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
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Human placental fibronectin was isolated from fresh term placenta by urea extraction and purified by gelatin affinity chromatography. A 44-kDa chymotryptic fragment, also purified by gelatin affinity chromatography, gave a broad, diffuse band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, whereas the analogous 43-kDa fragment from human plasma fibronectin migrated as a defined, narrow band. Upon extended treatment with endo-beta-galactosidase from Escherichia freundii, the 44-kDa chymotryptic gelatin-binding fragment from placental fibronectin changed its behavior on gel electrophoresis and migrated as a narrower, more defined band. The carbohydrates on human placental fibronectin contained a large percentage of polylactosamine structures, part of which occurred on the gelatin-binding fragment, comprising almost twice as much carbohydrate as plasma fibronectin. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the chymotryptic gelatin-binding fragments from both fibronectins showed the first 21 residues to be identical. Tryptic and chymotryptic peptide maps of the gelatin-binding fragment from placental fibronectin, however, showed differences including several protease-resistant domains not found in the analogous fragment from plasma fibronectin. Intact placental fibronectin contains 20,000 Da of carbohydrate, whereas plasma fibronectin contains 11,000 Da. Placental fibronectin is more protease-resistant than plasma fibronectin, possibly due to the additional carbohydrate. Polyclonal antibodies against either fibronectin completely cross-react with amniotic fluid fibronectin, placental fibronectin, and plasma fibronectin upon Ouchterlony immunodiffusion. Human fibronectins of putatively the same polypeptide structure are, therefore, glycosylated in a dramatically different fashion, depending on the tissue of expression. If the patterns of glycosylation comprise the only difference in the glycoprotein, this may confer the characteristic protease resistance found for each of the fibronectins.  相似文献
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1. Rosy barb (Puntius conchonius) were exposed to 181 micrograms/l mercuric chloride for 48 h and the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AIP), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), alanine aminotransferase (AIAT), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) were measured in vivo in several organs. 2. The AcP activity was inhibited in the liver, gills, kidneys, and gut but stimulated in the gonads. With the exception of kidney, the AIP activity showed an increase in all the organs examined. The AAT and AIAT were generally inhibited in different organs. An increase in LDH activity occurred in the cardiac and skeletal muscles while the AchE activity was considerably lowered in the brain, gills, and liver. 3. In vitro exposure to mercury at concentrations ranging between 10(-10) and 10(-4) M, inhibited the AIP, AAT, AIAT, LDH, and AchE activities in the tissues examined. The AcP activity was also depressed in all the tissues except in the testes, in which a marginal increase was noted. 4. The in vivo and in vitro effects of Hg were not of similar quality implying sequestration of toxic cations in the intact animals.  相似文献
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