首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   275篇
  完全免费   44篇
  2019年   1篇
  2018年   4篇
  2017年   8篇
  2016年   6篇
  2015年   2篇
  2014年   1篇
  2013年   6篇
  2012年   14篇
  2011年   20篇
  2010年   4篇
  2009年   7篇
  2008年   22篇
  2007年   21篇
  2006年   8篇
  2005年   17篇
  2004年   14篇
  2003年   18篇
  2002年   14篇
  2001年   11篇
  2000年   14篇
  1999年   16篇
  1998年   6篇
  1997年   5篇
  1996年   3篇
  1995年   5篇
  1994年   4篇
  1993年   3篇
  1992年   8篇
  1991年   8篇
  1990年   6篇
  1989年   10篇
  1988年   3篇
  1987年   6篇
  1986年   2篇
  1985年   2篇
  1984年   2篇
  1982年   1篇
  1981年   3篇
  1980年   2篇
  1979年   2篇
  1978年   1篇
  1977年   2篇
  1976年   1篇
  1975年   3篇
  1974年   1篇
  1973年   1篇
  1972年   1篇
排序方式: 共有319条查询结果,搜索用时 78 毫秒
1.
2.
The Janus family of protein tyrosine kinases (JAKs) regulate cellular processes involved in cell growth, differentiation and transformation through their association with cytokine receptors. However, compared with other kinases, little is known about cellular regulators of the JAKs. We have recently identified a JAK-binding protein (JAB) that inhibits JAK signaling in cells. In the studies presented here we demonstrate that JAB specifically binds to the tyrosine residue (Y1007) in the activation loop of JAK2, whose phosphorylation is required for activation of kinase activity. Binding to the phosphorylated activation loop requires the JAB SH2 domain and an additional N-terminal 12 amino acids (extended SH2 subdomain) containing two residues (Ile68 and Leu75) that are conserved in JAB-related proteins. An additional N-terminal 12-amino-acid region (kinase inhibitory region) of JAB also contributes to high-affinity binding to the JAK2 tyrosine kinase domain and is required for inhibition of JAK2 signaling and kinase activity. Our studies define a novel type of regulation of tyrosine kinases and might provide a basis for the design of specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  相似文献
3.
A multiple sequence alignment program, MAFFT, has been developed. The CPU time is drastically reduced as compared with existing methods. MAFFT includes two novel techniques. (i) Homo logous regions are rapidly identified by the fast Fourier transform (FFT), in which an amino acid sequence is converted to a sequence composed of volume and polarity values of each amino acid residue. (ii) We propose a simplified scoring system that performs well for reducing CPU time and increasing the accuracy of alignments even for sequences having large insertions or extensions as well as distantly related sequences of similar length. Two different heuristics, the progressive method (FFT-NS-2) and the iterative refinement method (FFT-NS-i), are implemented in MAFFT. The performances of FFT-NS-2 and FFT-NS-i were compared with other methods by computer simulations and benchmark tests; the CPU time of FFT-NS-2 is drastically reduced as compared with CLUSTALW with comparable accuracy. FFT-NS-i is over 100 times faster than T-COFFEE, when the number of input sequences exceeds 60, without sacrificing the accuracy.  相似文献
4.
Elevation of the provitamin A content of transgenic tomato plants   总被引:30,自引:0,他引:30  
Tomato products are the principal dietary sources of lycopene and major source of beta-carotene, both of which have been shown to benefit human health. To enhance the carotenoid content and profile of tomato fruit, we have produced transgenic lines containing a bacterial carotenoid gene (crtI) encoding the enzyme phytoene desaturase, which converts phytoene into lycopene. Expression of this gene in transgenic tomatoes did not elevate total carotenoid levels. However, the beta-carotene content increased about threefold, up to 45% of the total carotenoid content. Endogenous carotenoid genes were concurrently upregulated, except for phytoene synthase, which was repressed. The alteration in carotenoid content of these plants did not affect growth and development. Levels of noncarotenoid isoprenoids were unchanged in the transformants. The phenotype has been found to be stable and reproducible over at least four generations.  相似文献
5.
6.
The most important function of carotenoid pigments, especially beta-carotene in higher plants, is to protect organisms against photooxidative damage (G. Britton, in T. W. Goodwin, ed., Plant Pigments--1988, 1988; N. I. Krinsky, in O. Isler, H. Gutmann, and U. Solms, ed., Carotenoids--1971, 1971). beta-Carotene also functions as a precursor of vitamin A in mammals (G. A. J. Pitt, in I. Osler, H. Gutmann, and U. Solms, ed., Carotenoids--1971, 1971). The enzymes and genes which mediate the biosynthesis of cyclic carotenoids such as beta-carotene are virtually unknown. We have elucidated for the first time the pathway for biosynthesis of these carotenoids at the level of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, using bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis genes. These genes were cloned from a phytopathogenic bacterium, Erwinia uredovora 20D3 (ATCC 19321), in Escherichia coli and located on a 6,918-bp fragment whose nucleotide sequence was determined. Six open reading frames were found and designated the crtE, crtX, crtY, crtI, crtB, and crtZ genes in reference to the carotenoid biosynthesis genes of a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus; only crtZ had the opposite orientation from the others. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in Erwinia uredovora was clarified by analyzing carotenoids accumulated in E. coli transformants in which some of these six genes were expressed, as follows: geranylgeranyl PPiCrtB----prephytoene PPiCrtE----phytoeneCrtI---- lycopeneCrtY----beta-caroteneCrtZ----zeaxanthinCrtX--- -zeaxanthin-beta- diglucoside. The carotenoids in this pathway appear to be close to those in higher plants rather than to those in bacteria. Also significant is that only one gene product (CrtI) for the conversion of phytoene to lycopene is required, a conversion in which four sequential desaturations should occur via the intermediates phytofluene, zeta-carotene, and neurosporene.  相似文献
7.
A carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster for the production of astaxanthin was isolated from the marine bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum. This cluster contained five carotenogenic genes with the same orientation, which were designated crtW, crtZ, crtY, crtI, and crtB. The stop codons of individual crt genes except for crtB overlapped the start codons of the following crt genes. Escherichia coli transformants carrying the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthesis genes provide suitable substrates for carotenoid biosynthesis. The functions of the five crt genes of A. aurantiacum were determined through chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses of the pigments accumulated in some E. coli transformants carrying various combinations of the E. uredovora and A. aurantiacum carotenogenic genes. As a result, the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway is proposed for the first time at the level of the biosynthesis genes. The crtW and crtZ gene products, which mediated the oxygenation reactions from beta-carotene to astaxanthin, were found to have low substrate specificity. This allowed the production of many presumed intermediates of astaxanthin, i.e., adonixanthin, phoenicoxanthin (adonirubin), canthaxanthin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, and 3-hydroxyechinenone.  相似文献
8.
Forty autopsy livers from Japanese individuals were studied concerning alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozymes using electrophoretic and enzyme assay methods. A remarkably high frequency (85%) was found for the atypical ADH phenotype. The gene frequencies of ADH22 and ADH32 were .625 and .05, respectively. The usual ALDH phenotype showed two major isozyme bands, a faster migrating (low Km for acetaldehyde) and a slower migrating isozyme (high Km for acetaldehyde). Fifty-two percent of the specimens had an unusual phenotype of ALDH, which showed only the slower migrating isozyme. The usual phenotype was inhibited about 20%--30% by disulfiram and the unusual type up to 90%. Such a high incidence in the Japanese of the unusual phenotype, which lacks in the low Km isozyme, suggests that the initial intoxicating symptoms after alcohol drinking in these subjects might be due to delayed oxidation of acetaldehyde rather than its higher-than-normal production by typical or atypical ADH.  相似文献
9.
Metabolic engineering of ketocarotenoid formation in higher plants   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
Although higher plants synthesize carotenoids, they do not possess the ability to form ketocarotenoids. In order to generate higher plants capable of synthesizing combinations of ketolated and hydroxylated carotenoids the genes responsible for the carotene 4,4' oxygenase and 3,3' hydroxylase have been transformed into tomato and tobacco. The gene products were produced as a polyprotein. Subsequent cleavage of the polyprotein, targeting of the two enzymes to the plastid and enzyme activities have been shown for both gene products. Metabolite profiling has shown the formation of ketolated carotenoids from beta-carotene and its hydroxylated intermediates in tobacco and tomato leaf. In the nectary tissues of tobacco flowers a quantitative increase (10-fold) as well as compositional changes were evident, including the presence of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and 4-ketozeaxanthin. Interestingly, in this tissue the newly formed carotenoids resided predominantly as esters. These data are discussed in terms of metabolic engineering of carotenoids and their sequestration in higher plant tissues.  相似文献
10.
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号