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We have constructed chimaeric genes consisting of sequences encoding the transit peptide and 4, 16, 24, 53 or 126 amino-terminal residues of the mature chlorophyll a/b binding (Cab) apoprotein fused to the Escherichia coli gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS). These genes were introduced into tobacco plants and the fate of the fusion proteins they encode was analysed. Less than 1% of the total activity of fusion proteins containing the transit peptide and 4 (FP4) or 16 (FP16) amino-terminal amino acids of the mature Cab protein was associated with chloroplasts. Moreover, FP4 appears to be unprocessed. This is in striking contrast to fusion proteins containing the transit peptide and 24 (FP24), 53 (FP53) or 126 (FP126) amino-terminal residues of the mature Cab polypeptide. Approximately 98%, 96% or 75%, respectively, of the total activity of these fusion proteins was associated with purified intact chloroplasts, and protease protection experiments showed that of this, approximately 98%, 87% or 50%, respectively, was located within this organelle. Furthermore, both FP24 and FP53 appear to be processed. However, less than 10% of the activity of those fusion proteins translocated into chloroplasts was associated with thylakoid membranes.  相似文献
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One of the key factors limiting the proper assessment and use of rhizobial strains in the field is the lack of suitable methodology to screen the success of individual isolates in competing for nodule occupancy with different cultivars of legumes and in different soil and agronomic conditions. The use of marker genes enables individual rhizobial strains to be identified by a simple colour assay, thus enabling a dramatic increase in throughput of strain screening. One such marker system for rhizobial ecology, the GUS system, is already in use to facilitate rapid screening of rhizobial isolates. Other markers, which will allow the competitive behaviour of several strains to be studied at once, are under development.Likewise, breeding of the host legume for a high efficiency of nitrogen fixation is hampered by the difficulty in assessing this property. The method which currently gives the highest throughput of analysis, and has been successfully used in soybean breeding programs, is the ureide technique. However, it remains somewhat laborious for use in routine breeding programs. In this paper we discuss the potential use of reporter genes to provide information on the relative levels of ureides and other nitrogenous compounds in plants growing in the field. This would greatly increase the rate at which this trait could be scored, and would thus enable routine assays for increased symbiotic nitrogen fixation for breeding or management purposes in legume crops such as soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).  相似文献
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