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1.
Summary A new series of 96 pedigrees with the fra(X) syndrome was analysed using complex segregation analysis with pointers, defining affection as any degree of mental impairment. These families were found to exhibit the same segregation pattern as the first series of 110 pedigrees (Sherman et al. 1984). The best estimate for penetrance of mental impairment in males was 79% and in females was 35% for the combined data. Again, there was little evidence for sporadic cases among affected males.Many more intellectually normal transmitting males have been observed since the existence of such males and the concomitant need to investigate the paternal side of pedigrees was recognized. On further investigation of all 206 pedigrees from the old and new data sets, the sibships of nonexpressing males appeared to be different from those of expressing males. Our analysis, using mental impairment as the phenotype, suggested that obligate carrier mothers and daughters of intellectually normal transmitting males are rarely, if ever, mentally impaired and that the sibs of transmitting males are much less likely to be retarded than the sibs of mentally impaired males. Though mothers and daughters of transmitting males are similar in phenotype, the expression of the gene in their offspring appears to be different: the penetrance of mental impairment is higher in offspring of intellectually normal daughters of transmitting males than in offspring of intellectually normal mothers of transmitting males. The implications of these observations for genetic counseling and for genetic models of the fra(X) syndrome are discussed.  相似文献
2.
The expression of heritable fragile sites on human chromosomes has been shown to be dependent upon composition of the tissue medium for sites at 2q11, 10q23, 11q13, 16p124, 20p11 and Xq27 or 28 but not for the site at 16q22. Expression of the fragile sites is inhibited by folic acid, thymidine, folinic acid, and probably bromodeoxyuridine, and induced by methrotrexate. In addition, there is a correlation between frequency of expression of the sites and pH of the culture medium for the sites on 2q, 10q and Xq. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed, and a definition and classification of fragile sites is proposed.  相似文献
3.
Interaction of interleukin 2 (IL2) with its high affinity membrane receptor complex (IL2R) is sufficient to induce proliferation of T lymphocytes. However, the biochemical mechanisms by which IL2 induces this process remain unresolved. The IL2R complex consists of at least two distinct polypeptides that bind IL2, a 75-kDa intermediate affinity subunit (IL2R beta) and a 55-kDa low affinity subunit (IL2R alpha). As indicated by Western blotting with anti-phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies and confirmed by phosphoamino acid analysis, we now demonstrate that interaction of the T cell growth factor interleukin 2 (IL2) with its high affinity receptor on IL2-sensitive human peripheral blood lymphoblasts induces tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of 92, 80, 78, 70-75, and 57 kDa. IL2 induced tyrosine phosphorylation in YT 2C2 cells which express only the 75-kDa intermediate affinity IL2 binding molecule (IL2R beta) but not in cells which either express only the 55-kDa low affinity IL2 receptor molecule (IL2R alpha) or no IL2-binding sites. Therefore, IL2R beta, in the absence of IL2R alpha, appears sufficient to transduce the transmembrane signal leading to tyrosine phosphorylation. Two different antibodies reactive with phosphotyrosine specifically immunoprecipitated IL2R beta cross-linked to radiolabeled IL2. These findings suggest that IL2R beta is a substrate for the tyrosine kinase which is activated by IL2 binding to its receptor. Thus, like several other growth factor receptors, activation of the IL2R results in an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation with the receptor itself serving as one substrate.  相似文献
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5.
Fragile-X syndrome: Unique genetics of the heritable unstable element   总被引:22,自引:11,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
The fragile site at Xq27.3 is an unstable microsatellite repeat, p(CCG)n. In fragile-X syndrome pedigrees, this sequence exhibits variable amplification, the length of which correlates with fragile-site expression. There is a direct relationship between increased p(CCG)n copy number and propensity for instability: individuals having large amplifications exhibit somatic variation due to increased instability. The instability of the p(CCG)n repeat, when transmitted through affected pedigrees, explains the unusual segregation patterns of fragile-X phenotype, referred to as the Sherman paradox. All individuals of fragile-X genotype were found (where testing was possible) to have a parent with amplified p(CCG)n repeat, indicating that few, if any, cases of fragile-X syndrome are not familial.  相似文献
6.
The study of structural/functional characteristics of the cell-surface glycoproteins of leukocytes has led to a better understanding of the differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic cells. We have assessed the ability of a unique metalloprotease that is secreted by the bovine fibrinous pneumonia pathogen Pasteurella haemolytica, to cleave cell-surface glycoproteins expressed on human leukocytes. Biochemical analysis shows that the O-glycosylated cell surface Ag CD34, CD43 (leukosialin), CD44 (hyaluronic acid receptor), and CD45 (leukocyte common Ag), are all cleaved by this protease. Although these enzyme-sensitive structures contain N-linked glycans, they are all extensively glycosylated with O-linked carbohydrates, which are especially abundant on CD34 and CD43. In contrast, the glycoproteins CD18/11a,b,c (leukocyte integrins), CD71 (transferrin receptor), HLA class I, and 8A3 Ag, which contain N-linked glycans but no O-sialo-glycans, were resistant to the action of the enzyme. Inasmuch as previous studies using glycophorin A had indicated that the substrate specificity of this enzyme may be uniquely restricted to the cleavage of O-sialoglycoproteins, we have designated this activity, P. haemolytica glycoprotease. Immunofluorescence analysis with a variety of antibodies to different epitopes of the P. haemolytica glycoprotease-sensitive structures indicate that this enzyme may have widespread applications in epitope-mapping studies, and represents a novel tool with which to study structure/function relationships for O-sialoglycosylated cell-surface proteins. However, most significantly these results suggest that the P. haemolytica glycoprotease may be of use in the affinity purification and recovery of clinically important leukocyte subsets, such as primitive hematopoietic progenitors that express CD34.  相似文献
7.
The genetic defect in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is the Src homology 2 domain-containing protein SAP. SAP constitutively associates with the cell surface molecule, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), and competes with SH2-domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) for recruitment to SLAM. SLAM exhibits homology with the mouse cell surface receptor 2B4. The human homologue of 2B4 has now been identified. It is recognized by the c1.7 mAb, a mAb capable of activating human NK cells. Human 2B4 became tyrosine phosphorylated following pervanadate-treatment of transfected cells and recruited SHP-2. SAP was also recruited to 2B4 in activated cells. Importantly, the 2B4-SAP interaction prevented the association between 2B4 and SHP-2. These results suggest that the phenotype of XLP may result from perturbed signaling not only through SLAM, but also other cell surface molecules that utilize SAP as a signaling adaptor protein.  相似文献
8.
The fragile X syndrome is a very common disorder, but there has been little progress toward isolating the fragile X mutation (FRAXA). We describe a panel of 14 somatic cell hybrid lines, lymphoblastoid cell lines, and peripheral lymphocytes with X-chromosome translocation or deletion breakpoints near FRAXA. The locations of the breakpoints were defined with 16 established probes between pX45d (DXS100) and St14-1 (DXS52). Seven of the cell lines had breakpoints between the probes RN1 (DXS369) and U6.2 (DXS304), which flank FRAXA at distances of 3-5 centimorgans. The panel of cell lines was used to localize 16 new DNA probes in this region. Six of the probes-VK16, VK18, VK23, VK24, VK37, and VK47--detected loci near FRAXA, and it was possible to order both the X-chromosome breakpoints and the probes in relation to FRAXA. The order of probes and loci near FRAXA is cen-RN1,VK24-VK47-VK23-VK16,FRAXA-++ +VK21A-VK18-IDS-VK37-U6.2-qter. The breakpoints near FRAXA are sufficiently close together that probes localized with this panel can be linked on a large-scale restriction map by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This panel of cell lines will be valuable in rapidly localizing other probes near FRAXA.  相似文献
9.
A ligand was cloned for murine OX40, a member of the TNF receptor family, using a T cell lymphoma cDNA library. The ligand (muOX40L) is a type II membrane protein with significant identity to human gp34 (gp34), a protein whose expression on HTLV-1-infected human leukemic T cells is regulated by the tax gene. The predicted structures of muOX40L and gp34 are similar to, but more compact than, those of other ligands of the TNF family. Mapping of the muOX40L gene revealed tight linkage to gld, the FasL gene, on chromosome 1. gp34 maps to a homologous region in the human genome, 1q25. cDNAs for human OX40 receptor were cloned by cross-hybridization with muOX40, and gp34 was found to bind the expressed human receptor. Lymphoid expression of muOX40L was detected on activated T cells, with higher levels found on CD4+ rather than CD8+ cells. The cell-bound recombinant ligands are biologically active, co-stimulating T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Strong induction of IL-4 secretion by muOX40L suggests that this ligand may play a role in regulating immune responses. In addition, the HTLV-1 regulation of gp34 suggests a possible connection between virally induced pathogenesis and the OX40 system.  相似文献
10.
Summary Data are presented suggesting that the form of X-linked mental retardation with macro-orchidism and the form associated with a fragile site at Xq27 or 28 are the same entity.  相似文献
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