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The majority of the p53 genes derived from human colorectal carcinomas contain point mutations. A significant number of these mutations occur in or around amino acids 143, 175, 273, or 281. Experiments presented here demonstrate for the first time that p53 DNA clones containing any one of these mutations cooperate with the activated ras oncogene to transform primary rat embryo cells in culture. These transformed cells produce elevated levels of the human p53 protein, which has extended half-lives (1.5-7 h), as compared to the wild-type human p53 protein (20-30 min). The p53 mutant with an alteration at residue 175 (p53-175H) binds tightly to the cellular heat shock protein, hsc70. In contrast, the p53 mutants possessing mutations at either residue 273 or 281 (p53-273H/281G) do not bind detectably to this heat shock protein and generally are less efficient at forming transformed foci in culture. The transformed cell lines are tumorigenic in nude mice. Thus, two classes of p53 mutant proteins can be distinguished: p53-175H, which cooperates with ras efficiently and binds to hsc70, and p53-273H/281G, which has a reduced efficiency of transformed foci formation and does not bind hsc70. This demonstrates that complex formation between mutant p53 and hsc70 is not required for p53-mediated transformation, but rather it facilitates this function, perhaps by ensuring sequestration of the endogenous wild-type p53 protein. The positive effect on cell proliferation by these mutant p53 proteins is consistent with a role for activated p53 mutants in the genesis of colorectal carcinomas.  相似文献
2.
High levels of the p53 tumor suppressor protein can block progression through the cell cycle. A model system for the study of the mechanism of action of wild-type p53 is a cell line (T64-7B) derived from rat embryo fibroblasts transformed by activated ras and a temperature-sensitive murine p53 gene. At 37 to 39 degrees C, the murine p53 protein is in a mutant conformation and the cells actively divide, whereas at 32 degrees C, the protein has a wild-type conformation and the cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Wild-type simian virus 40 large T antigen and a variety of T-antigen mutants were assayed for the ability to bypass the cell cycle block effected by the wild-type p53 protein to induce colony formation at 32 degrees C. The results indicate that two functions within the amino terminus of T antigen are essential to induce cell growth: (i) the ability to bind to the retinoblastoma protein, Rb, and (ii) the presence of a domain in the first exon that appears to interact with the cellular protein, p300. Thus, the cell cycle arrest triggered by wild-type p53 may be overcome by formation of a T-antigen complex with Rb, p300, or both that could then function to either remove p53-mediated negative growth regulatory signals or promote a positive cell growth signal. Surprisingly, T antigen-p53 complexes are not required to overcome the temperature-sensitive p53 block to the cell cycle in these cells. These data suggest that simian virus 40 T antigen associated with Rb, p300, or both proteins can communicate in a cell with the functions of the wild-type p53 protein.  相似文献
3.
R S Quartin  J G Wetmur 《Biochemistry》1989,28(3):1040-1047
A 12-mer oligodeoxynucleotide containing 10 methylphosphonate bonds and 1 phosphodiester bond was shown to bind specifically to the restriction endonuclease fragment containing complementary DNA in a Southern blot. This 12-mer as well as 14-mer oligodeoxynucleotides containing 3 methylphosphonate and 10 phosphodiester bonds was used to examine the effect of reduced charge on the thermodynamics of binding to complementary DNA or complementary oligodeoxynucleotides with additional nucleotides overlapping both the 3' and 5' ends. The 14-mer oligodeoxynucleotides were synthesized with one methylphosphonamidite (A, C, G, or T). Melting profiles were examined by spectrophotometry for the 14-mers and by a gel-shift assay for the 12-mer. Nearest-neighbor free energy values were compiled for predicting concentration-dependent melting temperatures for all oligodeoxynucleotide hybridizations, including those involving adjacent dG residues. The free energy contribution to duplex formation from the dangling ends was about 1 kcal/mol. The free energy decrement due to introduction of each methylphosphonate linkage was -0.75 kcal/mol in high salt independent of the methylphosphonamidite used for synthesis of the oligodeoxynucleotide. However, the change in charge per nearest-neighbor base pair decreased from 0.26 to 0.0 when the nearest-neighbor base pair contained one methylphosphonate. Thus at very low salt, methylphosphonate-substituted oligodeoxynucleotides form more stable hybrids than analogous phosphodiester sequences. The 12-mer with 10 methylphosphonate bonds outcompetes the analogous phosphodiester 12-mer below 0.01 M NaCl. The temperature of 50% dissociation of bound oligodeoxynucleotide after being washed for 30 min was measured with a dot-blot assay. These results, together with the thermodynamic results, indicate that the substitution of methylphosphonate linkages at high salt only affects the reverse rate constant.  相似文献
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5.
Branch migration mediated DNA labeling and cloning   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The sequence-dependent attachment (capture) of an oligodeoxynucleotide duplex containing a single-stranded tail can be mediated by branch migration into the end of a DNA molecule. Substitution of bromodeoxycytidine (BrdC) for deoxycytidine (dC) increased DNA-DNA hybrid stability. BrdC-containing oligodeoxynucleotides displaced dC-containing strands from duplexes with blunt ends or 3'-overhangs. In the later case the rate of displacement was of the same order of magnitude as DNA reassociation. A BrdC-containing displacer oligodeoxynucleotide was used for transient sequence-specific invasion at a particular PstI site. The product was captured by use of T4 DNA ligase and a linker oligodeoxynucleotide. The capture rate was more than 300 times the rate observed for an unrelated PstI site. This high degree of specificity required BrdC substitution. In addition, deliberate incorporation of an incorrect nucleotide into a displacer strand demonstrated that branch migration was terminated at a mismatch. A branched, BrdC-containing ligated product of a capture reaction was cloned and sequenced. The specific capture reaction may be used to label a particular DNA fragment prior to electrophoresis, to mark the specific fragment for affinity chromatography, or to facilitate cloning by introducing a new overhanging sequence compatible with a restriction endonuclease site in a cloning vector.  相似文献
6.
In this study we attempted to define the determinants on Ia molecules recognized by autoreactive hybridomas obtained from (C57BL/6 X BALB/c)F1 mice. The epitopes recognized by the T cells were characterized (a) using stimulating cells from various congenic and H-2 recombinant inbred strains and (b) by inhibition of activation with anti-Ia antibodies. Our hybridomas were strictly autoreactive and did not exhibit any alloreactivity, as is often observed for such cells. Our results show that more epitopes than previously believed are recognized by autoreactive T cells. One T-cell hybridoma (QW27.1) is unique in that it recognizes a hybrid F1 Ia determinant. Antigenic markers associated with the receptor of the T-cell hybridomas were studied with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for L3T4 and a V beta "idiotype". The results indicate that all Lyt 1.2 autoreactive T cells express L3T4 antigen in association with their receptor. One clone (QW64.14) expresses the V beta idiotype recognized by F23.1 monoclonal antibody. Moreover, this clone is activated by F23.1, linked to Sepharose 4B beads, which was believed previously to activate only Lyt 2+, L3T4 T cells. The supernatant of one clone (QW17.5) helps B cells to differentiate into antibody-producing cells without requiring direct contact with the autoreactive clone.  相似文献
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