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1.
Intact ribonucleic acid (RNA) has been prepared from tissues rich in ribonuclease such as the rat pancreas by efficient homogenization in a 4 M solution of the potent protein denaturant guanidinium thiocyanate plus 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol to break protein disulfide bonds. The RNA was isolated free of protein by ethanol precipitation or by sedimentation through cesium chloride. Rat pancreas RNA obtained by these means has been used as a source for the purification of alpha-amylase messenger ribonucleic acid.  相似文献
2.
A partial library of cloned human DNA was screened for sequences represented on and specific to the X chromosome. The library was constructed from Bam HI-digested human DNA from cells with X chromosome polyploidy, and was cloned in pBR322. The screening was performed by individually hybridizing 32P-labeled cloned plasmids to Southern blots containing Bam HI-digested DNA from mouse-human hybrid cells having the human X chromosome and from derivative hybrids lacking the human X. Of 45 clones assayed, 33 contained sequences homologous to ones represented many times on the X. In situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes demonstrated that at least four of these clones were homologous to autosomes as well. Only one of the 18 clones of this kind tested cross-hybridized with another. Two recombinant plasmids were shown to be derived from the X chromosome and to be X chromosome-specific by three criteria: they hybridized to a single band in the Southern blots of Bam HI-digested DNA from hybrid cells containing the X chromosome; they hybridized to a band of the same molecular weight as did the inserted DNA fragment; and they showed a dosage effect when hybridized to Southern blots of Bam HI-digested DNA from XY and XXX cells. One of these hybridized as a single-copy or low-order reiterated sequence in a Cot analysis using male DNA as driver. Our methods can be applied to the identification of any chromosome-specific clone. The two X-specific clones identified here should be useful in investigating the mechanism of X inactivation and in isolating a Barr body.  相似文献
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The mRNA sequences for two rat pancreatic elastolytic enzymes have been cloned by recombinant DNA technology and their nucleotide sequences determined. Rat elastase I mRNA is 1113 nucleotides in length, plus a poly(A) tail, and encodes a preproelastase of 266 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of the predicted active form of rat elastase I is 84% homologous to porcine elastase 1. Key amino acid residues involved in determining substrate specificity of porcine elastase 1 are retained in the rat enzyme. The activation peptide of the zymogen does not appear related to that of other mammalian pancreatic serine proteases. The mRNA for elastase I is localized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of acinar cells, as expected for the site of synthesis of an exocrine secretory enzyme. Rat elastase II mRNA is 910 nucleotides in length, plus a poly(A) tail, and encodes a preproenzyme of 271 amino acids. The amino acid sequence is more closely related to porcine elastase 1 (58% sequence identity) than to the other pancreatic serine proteases (33-39% sequence identity). Predictions of substrate preference based upon key amino acid residues that define the substrate binding cleft are consistent with the broad specificity observed for mammalian pancreatic elastase 2. The activation peptide is similar to that of the chymotrypsinogens and retains an N-terminal cysteine available to form a disulfide link to an internal conserved cysteine residue.  相似文献
7.
The cell-specific elastase I enhancer comprises two domains.   总被引:13,自引:7,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
Two separate domains within the 134-base-pair rat elastase I enhancer and a third domain at the enhancer-promoter boundary are required for selective expression in pancreatic acinar cells. The domains were detected by a series of 10-base-pair substitution mutations across the elastase I gene regulatory region from positions -200 to -61. The effect of each mutant on the pancreas-specific expression of a linked chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was assayed by transfection into pancreatic 266-6 acinar cells and control NIH/3T3 cells. The two enhancer domains are nonredundant, because mutations in either eliminated (greater than 100-fold reduction) expression in 266-6 cells. DNase I protection studies of the elastase I enhancer-promoter region with partially purified nuclear extracts from pancreatic tissue and 266-6 cells revealed nine discrete protected regions (footprints) on both DNA strands. One of three footprints that lie within the two functional domains of the enhancer contained a sequence, conserved among several pancreas-specific genes, which when mutated decreased linked chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression up to 170-fold in 266-6 cells. This footprint may represent a binding site for one or more pancreas-specific regulatory proteins.  相似文献
8.
We have used oligonucleotide probes specific for members of the rat kallikrein/tonin gene family (PS, S1, S2, S3, K1, and P1) to establish which arginyl esteropeptidase (kallikrein-like) genes are expressed in the prostate. We have also compared the expression and androgen dependence of these genes in prostate, submaxillary gland (SMG) and kidney. Only S3 (tonin-like) and P1 (kallikrein-like) are expressed in the prostate, with S3 very much more abundant. Prostatic S3 mRNA disappears after 8 days castration and is restored to intact levels by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) but not estradiol benzoate (EB) for 8 days. Prostate P1 mRNA levels were similarly but not identically affected. All six genes are expressed in the SMG, with PS (true kallikrein) the most abundant. Levels of PS mRNA in SMG are unaffected by castration, DHT, or EB treatment, although mRNA levels of other kallikrein-like (S1, K1, and P1), tonin (S2), and tonin-like (S3) genes fall 40-60% after castration, and are unaffected or partially restored by DHT and/or EB administration. Only PS and K1 are expressed in the kidney, at much lower levels than in the SMG and unaffected by castration or steroids. These studies thus confirm and extend the concept of tissue specificity of arginyl esteropeptidase gene expression, and further demonstrate that the same gene(s) is differentially regulated by androgens in the rat prostate, SMG, and kidney.  相似文献
9.
Tissue-specific expression of kallikrein-related genes in the rat   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
P L Ashley  R J MacDonald 《Biochemistry》1985,24(17):4520-4527
Four distinct kallikrein-related mRNAs (PS, S1, S2, and S3), encoded by members of a multigene family, are selectively expressed in various combinations in several rat tissues. Although closely related along most of the mRNA sequence, the four mRNAs can be selectively detected with synthetic oligonucleotide probes complementary to highly variable mRNA subregions. PS mRNA, which encodes an enzyme with true kallikrein activity, is present at high levels in the submaxillary gland, pancreas, and kidney. S1 mRNA, which encodes an enzyme similar to the PS kallikrein, is detected only in the submaxillary gland and is present at one-fifth the PS mRNA level. S2 mRNA, which encodes the enzyme tonin, is present in the submaxillary gland at half the PS mRNA level and at a slightly higher level in the prostate. S3 mRNA, which encodes an enzyme very similar to tonin, is present in the submaxillary gland at one-tenth the PS mRNA level and in the prostate at about the same level as tonin mRNA.  相似文献
10.
Zymogen granule membranes from the rat exocrine pancreas displays distinctive, simple protein and glycoprotein compositions when compared to other intracellular membranes. The carbohydrate content of zymogen granule membrane protein was 5-10-fold greater than that of membrane fractions isolated from smooth and rough microsomes, mitochondria and a preparation containing plasma membranes, and 50-100-fold greater than the zymogen granule content and the postmicrosomal supernate. The granule membrane glycoprotein contained primarily sialic acid, fucose, mannose, galactose and N-acetylglucosamine. The levels of galactose, fucose and sialic acid increased in membranes in the following order: rough microsomes less than smooth microsomes less than zymogen granules. Membrane polypeptides were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The profile of zymogen granule membrane polypeptides was characterized by GP-2, a species with an apparent molecular weight of 74 000. Radioactivity profiles of membranes labeled with [3H]glucosamine or [3H]leucine, as well as periodic acid-Schiff stain profiles, indicated that GP-2 accounted for approx. 40% of the firmly bound granule membrane protein. Low levels of a species similar to GP-2 were detected in membranes of smooth microsomes and the preparation enriched in plasma membranes but not in other subcellular fractions. These results suggest that GP-2 is a biochemical marker for zymogen granules. Membrane glycoproteins of intact zymogen granules were resistant to neuraminidase treatment, while those in isolated granule membranes were readily degraded by neuraminidase. GP-2 of intact granules was not labeled by exposure to galactose oxidase followed by reduction with NaB3H4. In contrast, GP-2 in purified granule membranes was readily labeled by this procedure. Therefore GP-2 appears to be located on the zymogen granule interior.  相似文献
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