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We have demonstrated previously that the oncoprotein Mdm2 has a ubiquitin ligase activity for the tumor suppressor p53 protein. In the present study, we characterize this ubiquitin ligase activity of Mdm2. We first demonstrate the ubiquitination of several p53 point mutants and deletion mutants by Mdm2. The point mutants, which cannot bind to Mdm2, are not ubiquitinated by Mdm2. The ubiquitination of the C-terminal deletion mutants, which contain so-called Mdm2-binding sites, is markedly decreased, compared with that of wild-type p53. The binding of Mdm2 to p53 is essential for ubiquitination, but p53's tertiary structure and/or C-terminal region may also be important for this reaction. DNA-dependent protein kinase is known to phosphorylate p53 on Mdm2-binding sites, where DNA damage induces phosphorylation, and p53 phosphorylated by this kinase is not a good substrate for Mdm2. This suggests that DNA damage-induced phosphorylation stabilizes p53 by inhibiting its ubiquitination by Mdm2. We further investigated whether the tumor suppressor p19(ARF) affects the ubiquitin ligase activity of Mdm2 for p53. The activity of p19(ARF)-bound Mdm2 was found to be lower than that of free Mdm2, suggesting that p19(ARF) promotes the stabilization of p53 by inactivating Mdm2.  相似文献
2.
To evaluate the independent and interactive contributions of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and ethanol-induced isozyme cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) genes to alcohol consumption large enough to induce health problems, 643 healthy Japanese men aged between 23 and 64 years, recruited from two different occupational groups, were analyzed for genotype and drinking habits. The frequency of excessive alcohol consumers (EAC) who drank 90 ml or more alcohol more than 3 days a week was significantly higher in subjects possessing the ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(1) genotype than in those having ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(2) or ALDH2(2)/ALDH2(2) genotypes. A significant difference was also found in the different genotypes of CYP2E1. Moreover, a borderline significant interaction between the ALDH2 and CYP2E1 genotypes on excessive alcohol consumption was observed, i.e., the group of subjects having the c2 allele of CYP2E1 had a higher frequency of EAC than those having c1/c1 genotypes in the genotype subgroup ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(1), whereas these were not found in the heterozygote and homozygote subgroups of the ALDH2(2) allele. Neither the independent nor interactive genetic effect of ADH2 on excessive alcohol consumption was obvious. In conclusion, Japanese men with the ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(1) genotype and the c2 allele of CYP2E1 are at higher risk of showing excessive alcohol consumption.  相似文献
3.
A mouse temperature-sensitive mutant for cell growth, tsFT210, was characterized. More than 90% of the mutant cells were arrested at the G2 phase at the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C). In this mutant, the activity of cdc2 kinase did not increase at the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C) but did increase at the permissive temperature (33 degrees C) at the G2/M phase in the cell cycle. The in vitro activity of cdc2 kinase of tsFT210 was more thermolabile than that of wild-type cells. The amount of cdc2 kinase in tsFT210 cells decreased when the cells were incubated at 39 degrees C, but that in wild-type cells did not. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a point mutation in cDNA of cdc2 kinase was found in tsFT210, and as a result, the proline of wild-type cdc2 kinase at the 272 amino acid residues from N-terminal methionine changed to serine. During preparation of this paper, the detection of two mutation sites of this mutant was reported (Th'ng, J.P.H., Wright, P.S., Hamaguchi, J., Lee, M.G., Norbury, C.J., Nurse, P., and Bradbury, E.M. (1990). Cell, 63: 313-324); one was the same site as reported here, the other was A-to-G change in the 154th base from base A in initial ATG, and this caused the change of isoleucine to valine in the PSTAIR region of cdc2 kinase. This mutation in the PSTAIR region was not detected by us. The probable reason for this discrepancy was in that Th'ng and his group sequenced a cDNA cloned from the amplified cDNAs by PCR, and did not directly sequence the amplified cDNA as we did.  相似文献
4.
The mouse analog of yeast CDC2+ kinase was detected in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of cultured mouse FM3A cells. Its activity in the nuclear fraction increased in the G2/M phase became seven times higher than that in the G1/S phase, while the activity in the cytoplasmic fraction remained was almost constant from the G1/S to G1 phases. The activity in the cytoplasmic fraction was similar to that in the nuclear fraction in the G2/M phase. The amount of the enzyme remained almost constant during the cell cycle in both the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. These findings suggest that the cytoplasmic enzyme might play an independent role in the cell cycle.  相似文献
5.
The human weel protein, a homologue of the yeast weel protein, was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified weel protein phosphorylated the tyrosine residue of cdc2 kinase in HeLa cell extracts in the presence of human cyclin B1. It also phosphorylated the tyrosine but not the threonine residue in the peptide of the amino-terminal of cdc2 kinase, although both these residues have been shown to be phosphorylated in higher eukaryotes in vivo. Furthermore, serine and tyrosine residues of the yeast weel protein are reportedly autophosphorylated in vitro, however the tyrosine residue of the human weel protein was autophosphorylated whereas the serine and threonine residues were not. These data indicate that human p50weel is tyrosine kinase and that it phosphorylated the tyrosine residue of the amino-terminal of cdc2 kinase in the presence of cyclin B1 and that the threonine residue is phosphorylated by another, unknown kinase.  相似文献
6.
Related to Ubiquitin (RUB)/Nedd8 is a ubiquitin-like protein that covalently attaches to cullins, a subunit of the SCF (for Skp, Cdc53p/Cul1, and F-box protein) complex, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and has been shown to be required for robust function of the complex. The effects of reducing protein levels for two Rub proteins, RUB1 and RUB2, were characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. T-DNA insertional null lines homozygous at a single RUB-encoding locus were analyzed and found to have a wild-type phenotype. A double mutant was never recovered. More than one-quarter of the progeny from the self-fertilization of plants with a single functional RUB-encoding gene died as embryos at the two-cell stage. Outcrosses demonstrated reduced inheritance of the null allele from both the male and female parent. Hemigglutinin-tagged forms of RUB1 and RUB2 conjugate to the same cullin protein, CUL1, and produce the same conjugation pattern. To further understand the function of the RUB proteins, a construct designed to produce a double-stranded RUB1 mRNA was introduced into plants, and three lines with reduced levels of RUB1- and RUB2-encoding mRNA and RUB1/2 protein content were analyzed in detail. Mature plants were severely dwarfed, seedlings were insensitive to auxin in root assays, and dark-grown seedlings had a partial triple-response phenotype that was suppressed when seedlings were grown on ethylene perception or synthesis inhibitors. The dsrub lines produced threefold to fivefold more ethylene than the wild type. This study illustrates that RUB1 and RUB2 are genetically and biochemically redundant and demonstrates that RUB1/2 proteins are essential for early embryonic cell divisions and that they regulate diverse processes.  相似文献
7.
In eukaryotes, the post-translational addition of methyl groups to histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) plays key roles in maintenance and establishment of appropriate gene expression patterns and chromatin states. We report here that an essential locus within chromosome 3L centric heterochromatin encodes the previously uncharacterized Drosophila melanogaster ortholog (dSet1, CG40351) of the Set1 H3K4 histone methyltransferase (HMT). Our results suggest that dSet1 acts as a "global" or general H3K4 di- and trimethyl HMT in Drosophila. Levels of H3K4 di- and trimethylation are significantly reduced in dSet1 mutants during late larval and post-larval stages, but not in animals carrying mutations in genes encoding other well-characterized H3K4 HMTs such as trr, trx, and ash1. The latter results suggest that Trr, Trx, and Ash1 may play more specific roles in regulating key cellular targets and pathways and/or act as global H3K4 HMTs earlier in development. In yeast and mammalian cells, the HMT activity of Set1 proteins is mediated through an evolutionarily conserved protein complex known as Complex of Proteins Associated with Set1 (COMPASS). We present biochemical evidence that dSet1 interacts with members of a putative Drosophila COMPASS complex and genetic evidence that these members are functionally required for H3K4 methylation. Taken together, our results suggest that dSet1 is responsible for the bulk of H3K4 di- and trimethylation throughout Drosophila development, thus providing a model system for better understanding the requirements for and functions of these modifications in metazoans.  相似文献
8.
Lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Epidemiologic studies have shown the Hawaiian Islands have the highest prevalence of NTM lung infections in the United States. However, potential environmental reservoirs and species diversity have not been characterized. In this cross-sectional study, we describe molecular and phylogenetic comparisons of NTM isolated from 172 household plumbing biofilms and soil samples from 62 non-patient households and 15 respiratory specimens. Although non-uniform geographic sampling and availability of patient information were limitations, Mycobacterium chimaera was found to be the dominant species in both environmental and respiratory specimens. In contrast to previous studies from the continental U.S., no Mycobacterium avium was identified. Mycobacterium intracellulare was found only in respiratory specimens and a soil sample. We conclude that Hawai’i’s household water sources contain a unique composition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), increasing our appreciation of NTM organisms of pulmonary importance in tropical environments.  相似文献
9.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a large group of environmental organisms with worldwide distribution, but only a relatively few are known to be pathogenic. Chronic, debilitating lung disease is the most common manifestation of NTM infection, which is often refractory to treatment. The incidence and prevalence of NTM lung disease are increasing in the United States and in many parts of the world. Hence, a more complete understanding of NTM pathogenesis will provide the foundation to develop innovative approaches to treat this recalcitrant disease. Herein, we demonstrate that several species of NTM show broad resistance to the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin (LL-37). Resistance to LL-37 was not significantly different between M. avium that contain serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid (GPL, M. aviumssGPL) and M. avium that do not (M. aviumΔssGPL). Similarly, M. abscessus containing non-specific GPL (M. abscessusnsGPL(+)) or lacking nsGPL (M. abscessusnsGPL(-)) remained equally resistant to LL-37. These findings would support the notion that GPL are not the components responsible for NTM resistance to LL-37. Unexpectedly, the growth of M. abscessusnsGPL(-) increased with LL-37 or scrambled LL-37 peptide in a dose-dependent fashion. We also discovered that LL-37 exposed to NTM had reduced antimicrobial activity, and initial work indicates that this is likely due to inactivation of LL-37 by lipid component(s) of the NTM cell envelope. We conclude that pathogenic NTM resist and inactivate LL-37. The mechanism by which NTM circumvent the antimicrobial activity of LL-37 remains to be determined.  相似文献
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