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The nucleotide sequence of the maize controlling element Activator   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
R F Pohlman  N V Fedoroff  J Messing 《Cell》1984,37(2):635-643
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We previously reported that broad-host-range plasmid RK2 encodes multiple host-lethal kil determinants (kilA, kilB1, kilB2, and kilC) which are controlled by RK2-specified kor functions (korA, korB, and korC). Here we show that kil and kor determinants have significant effects on RK2 replication control. First, korA and korB inhibit the replication of certain RK2 derivatives, unless plasmid replication is made independent of the essential RK2 gene trfA. Second, kilB1 exerts a strong effect on this interaction. If the target plasmid is defective in kilB1, sensitivity to korA and korB is enhanced at least 100-fold. Thus, korA and korB act negatively on RK2 replication, whereas kilB1 acts in a positive manner to counteract this effect. A mutant RK2 derivative, resistant to korA and korB, was found to have fused a new promoter to trfA, indicating that the targets for korA and korB are at the 5' end of the trfA gene. We constructed a trfA-lacZ fusion and found that synthesis of beta-galactosidase is inhibited by korA and korB. Thus korA, korB, and kilB1 influence RK2 replication by regulating trfA expression. We conclude that the network of kil and kor determinants is part of a replication control system for RK2.  相似文献
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Plasmid RK2 encodes several kil determinants whose lethal action on Escherichia coli host cells is prevented by RK2 kor genes. Here we show that the mini-RK2 plasmid, pRK248, specifies a kilB component (kilB1) in the region of the replication gene trfA. kilB1 is different from trfA and is completely encoded within the pRK248 HaeII A fragment. Transformation of E. coli cells with hybrid plasmids containing the cloned kilB1 determinant is very inefficient and results in the selection of variant kil- plasmids, many of which show genetic and physical evidence of deletions. If another pRK248 gene (korB1) is present in the cells, kilB1+ plasmids can be established at high efficiency and without any detectable changes. KorB1 is encoded by the trfB region of pRK248 because recombinant plasmids with this region are able to control kilB1 in trans. These results substantiate our earlier explanation for the structure of pRK248 and for the perplexing requirement of the trfB region in this plasmid.  相似文献
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We have examined the relationship of kilB to the other known determinants which map in the 14'-22' region of RK2. These are trfA, which encodes a diffusible replication function, and tra3, which specifies a function required for plasmid transmissibility. We found that, in addition to kilB, both tra3 and trfA functions are expressed by the cloned 14'-22' region of RK2. Four temperature-sensitive mutants of kilB were isolated by in vitro mutagenesis of the cloned segment. At 42 degrees C these mutant plasmids can be maintained in Escherichia coli cells which lack a korB+ helper plasmid. At 30 degrees C the helper plasmid is required. Our analysis of these mutants revealed that kilB function is distinct from those of trfA and tra3. One mutant plasmid was temperature-sensitive for maintenance of an RK2 ori plasmid, but this phenotype was shown to be independent of the KilB(ts) phenotype. Thus, kilB appears to be a separate new locus in this portion of the RK2 genome. In addition, these mutants allowed us to test for the existence of an essential replication determinant (trfB) in the 50.4'-56.4' region of RK2. Our results demonstrate that this region is non-essential for replication from the RK2 ori in E. coli. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain the role of the RK2 trfB region for plasmid maintenance in E. coli.  相似文献
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The IncN plasmid pKM101 nuc gene encodes a periplasmically localized endonuclease. DNA sequence analysis indicates that this gene encodes a hydrophilic protein of about 19.5 kDa containing a hydrophobic signal sequence. nuc is homologous to a partially sequenced open reading frame adjacent to the sog gene of the plasmid CollB-P9, a plasmid known to encode an endonuclease similar to that of pKM101. A partially sequenced tra gene directly upstream of nuc is homologous to the virB11 gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have partially purified the pKM101 nuclease by osmotic shock and cation exchange chromatography, and used this enzyme preparation to sequence the protein's amino terminus. The first 13 amino acids of the mature protein match amino acids 23 to 35 of the predicted sequence, indicating that the protein is proteolytically processed to a molecular mass of approximately 17 kDa, probably during export to the periplasmic space. The enzyme was able to attack many sites along an end labelled duplex DNA substrate, but showed clearly preferred cleavage sites, and may cleave preferentially at purine-rich regions.  相似文献
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High frequency callus formation from maize protoplasts   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Summary A solid feeder layer technique was developed to improve callus formation of Black Mexican Sweet maize (Zea mays L.) suspension culture protoplasts. Protoplasts were plated in 0.2 ml liquid media onto a cellulose nitrate filter on top of agarose-solidified media in which Black Mexican Sweet suspension feeder cells were embedded. Callus colony formation frequencies exceeding 10% of the plated protoplasts were obtained for densities of 103–105 protoplasts/ 0.2 ml, which was 100- to 1,000-fold higher than colony formation frequencies obtained for conventional protoplast plating methods such as liquid culture or embedding in agarose media. Compared with conventional methods, the feeder layer method gave higher colony formation frequencies for three independently maintained Black Mexican Sweet suspension lines. Differences among the three lines indicated that colony formation frequencies might also be influenced by the suspension culture maintenance regime and length of time on different 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The callus colony formation frequency reported is an essential prerequesite for recovering rare mutants or genetically transformed maize protoplasts.  相似文献
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The nucleotide sequence of a mitochondrial replicon from maize   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
S R Ludwig  R F Pohlman  J Vieira  A G Smith  J Messing 《Gene》1985,38(1-3):131-138
The 1913-bp maize mitochondrial (mt) plasmid was isolated from a suspension culture of a Black Mexican Sweet maize strain, cloned into M13mp vectors, and sequenced by a unidirectional progressive deletion method. The 1.9-kb extrachromosomal double-stranded circular DNA plasmid was found to contain regions of sequence which in other systems are known to be part of origins of replication (ori). This plasmid could be used as a carrier for chimeric genes and a molecular probe for replication.  相似文献
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