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R D Gietz  A Sugino 《Gene》1988,74(2):527-534
We describe the production of new alleles of the LEU2, URA3 and TRP1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in vitro mutagenesis. Each new allele, which lacks restriction enzyme recognition sequences found in the pUC19 multicloning site, was used to construct a unique series of yeast-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors derived from the plasmid pUC19. For each gene a 2 mu vector (YEplac), an ARS1 CEN4 vector (YCplac) and an integrative vector (YIplac) was constructed. The features of these vectors include (i) small size; (ii) unique recognition site for each restriction enzyme found in the pUC19 multicloning site; (iii) screening for plasmids containing inserts by color assay; (iv) high plasmid yield; (v) efficient transformation of S. cerevisiae. These vectors should allow greater flexibility with regard to DNA restriction fragment manipulation and subcloning.  相似文献
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R D Gietz  S Prakash 《Gene》1988,74(2):535-541
The RAD4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the incision step of excision repair. We have cloned the RAD4 gene and determined its nucleotide sequence. RAD4 encodes a somewhat basic protein of 754 amino acids (aa) with an Mr of 87,173. RAD4 contains several groups of 4-7 consecutive basic aa residues that could be involved in DNA binding and it also contains an alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix motif for DNA binding. Like several other DNA repair proteins of S. cerevisiae, the C terminus of RAD4 protein is highly acidic.  相似文献
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Deletion of an integrated plasmid, a specific type of intrachromosomal recombination, was evaluated for inducibility with the phenylpropenes safrole, eugenol and methyleugenol in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These phenylpropenes are found in food products, spices, pharmaceuticals and clove cigarettes. Safrole and eugenol are known carcinogens in animals and methyleugenol is a suspected carcinogen. These phenylpropenes are not detectable by the Ames assay and most other short-term tests used currently in predictive carcinogenesis. Like safrole, which has been shown to be nonmutagenic with the Ames assay, eugenol and methyleugenol were found to be nonmutagenic with the Ames assay. In contrast, with the yeast assays which screen for intra- and inter-chromosomal recombination in logarithmic phase cultures, all 3 compounds gave a positive dose-related response. These results demonstrate further that the yeast system can be modified easily to detect various genetic endpoints and that it deserves serious consideration as a test system for predictive carcinogenesis.  相似文献
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X. Kang  F. Yadao  R. D. Gietz    B. A. Kunz 《Genetics》1992,130(2):285-294
The RAD6 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an enzyme that conjugates ubiquitin to other proteins. Defects in RAD6 confer a mutator phenotype due, in part, to an increased rate of transposition of the yeast Ty element. To further delineate the role of protein ubiquitination in the control of spontaneous mutagenesis in yeast, we have characterized 202 mutations that arose spontaneously in the SUP4-o gene carried on a centromere vector in a RAD6 deletion strain. The resulting mutational spectrum was compared to that for 354 spontaneous SUP4-o mutations isolated in the isogenic wild-type parent. This comparison revealed that the rad6 mutator enhanced the rate of single base-pair substitution, as well as Ty insertion, but did not affect the rates of the other mutational classes detected. Relative to the wild-type parent, Ty inserted at considerably more SUP4-o positions in the rad6 strain with a significantly smaller fraction detected at a transposition hotspot. These findings suggest that, in addition to the rate of transposition, protein ubiquitination might influence the target site specificity of Ty insertion. The increase in the substitution rate accounted for approximately 90% of the rad6 mutator effect but only the two transitions and the G. C----T.A transversion were enhanced. Analysis of the distribution of these events within SUP4-o suggested that the site specificity of the substitutions was influenced by DNA sequence context. Transformation of heteroduplex plasmid DNAs into the two strains demonstrated that the rad6 mutator did not reduce the efficiency of correcting mismatches that could give rise to the transitions or transversion nor did it bias restoration of the mismatches to the incorrect base-pairs. These results are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms that might link ubiquitination of proteins to spontaneous mutation rates.  相似文献
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To identify proteins interacting in the insulin-signaling pathway that might define new pathways or regulate existing ones, we have employed the yeast two-hybrid system. In a two-hybrid screen of a human liver cDNA library, we identified the human growth factor receptor bound 14 (hGrb14) adaptor protein as a partner of the activated insulin receptor. Additional analysis of the insulin receptor--hGrb14 interaction in the yeast two-hybrid system revealed that the SH2 domain of hGrb14 was not the sole region involved in binding the activated insulin receptor. The insulin-stimulated interaction between hGrb14 and the insulin receptor was also observed in different mammalian cultured cell lines. This association was detected at 1 min of insulin stimulation and was maximal at 10 nM and greater concentrations of insulin. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (CHO-IR) and hGrb14 were used to examine the effects of hGrb14 overexpression on insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins; in general, increasing levels of hGrb14 expression resulted in a reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation. This decrease was demonstrated for the specific proteins src homology-containing and collagen-related protein (Shc), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and Downstream of tyrosine Kinase (Dok). The broad effects of hGrb14 overexpression on insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation suggest that it acts early in the insulin-signaling pathway.  相似文献
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