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1.
In pursuing studies on the early events in the infection of human B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), we examined the host cell attachment phase with a panel of B-cell-specific monoclonal antibodies. One of the monoclonal antibodies, OKB7, directly blocked the attachment of purified EBV to B lymphocytes in the absence of a second anti-immunoglobulin antibody and thereby prevented EBV infection of tonsil and peripheral blood B cells. Although earlier studies have shown a close association of the EBV and complement receptor (CR2), an anti-CR2 monoclonal antibody, anti-B2, did not directly block the binding of EBV to B cells. A comparison of the structures recognized by these monoclonal antibodies on various cell types and their functional and physiochemical properties was undertaken. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the molecules detected by OKB7 and anti-B2 were coexpressed to the same extent on B cells but were not expressed on T-cell lines. OKB7 and anti-B2 both immunoprecipitated a 145,000-molecular-weight membrane protein with an isoelectric point of 8.2 from membrane extracts of Raji lymphoblastoid cells. OKB7 and, to a lesser extent, anti-B2 directly blocked the attachment of C3d,g-coated fluorescent microspheres and sheep erythrocytes bearing C3d to B cells, indicating that these antibodies also react with CR2. These studies indicate that the EBV-CR2 receptor is a single membrane glycoprotein which possesses multiple antigenic and functional epitopes.  相似文献
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We analyzed the European genetic contribution to 10 populations of African descent in the United States (Maywood, Illinois; Detroit; New York; Philadelphia; Pittsburgh; Baltimore; Charleston, South Carolina; New Orleans; and Houston) and in Jamaica, using nine autosomal DNA markers. These markers either are population-specific or show frequency differences >45% between the parental populations and are thus especially informative for admixture. European genetic ancestry ranged from 6.8% (Jamaica) to 22.5% (New Orleans). The unique utility of these markers is reflected in the low variance associated with these admixture estimates (SEM 1.3%-2.7%). We also estimated the male and female European contribution to African Americans, on the basis of informative mtDNA (haplogroups H and L) and Y Alu polymorphic markers. Results indicate a sex-biased gene flow from Europeans, the male contribution being substantially greater than the female contribution. mtDNA haplogroups analysis shows no evidence of a significant maternal Amerindian contribution to any of the 10 populations. We detected significant nonrandom association between two markers located 22 cM apart (FY-null and AT3), most likely due to admixture linkage disequilibrium created in the interbreeding of the two parental populations. The strength of this association and the substantial genetic distance between FY and AT3 emphasize the importance of admixed populations as a useful resource for mapping traits with different prevalence in two parental populations.  相似文献
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The major Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) envelope glycoprotein, gp350, was purified from the B95-8 cell line and analyzed for its ability to mediate virus attachment to the isolated EBV/C3d receptor (CR2) of human B lymphocytes. Purified gp350 and EBV, but not cytomegalovirus, exhibited dose-dependent binding to purified CR2 in dot blot immunoassays. Binding was inhibited by certain monoclonal antibodies to CR2 and to gp350. Liposomes bearing incorporated gp350 bound to CR2-positive B-cell lines but not to CR2-negative lines. Liposome binding was also inhibited by the OKB7 anti-CR2 monoclonal antibody. A computer-generated comparison of the deduced gp350 amino acid sequence with that of the human C3d complement fragment revealed two regions of significant primary sequence homology, a finding which suggests that a common region on these two unrelated proteins may be involved in CR2 binding.  相似文献
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Autosomal dominant periodic fever syndromes are characterized by unexplained episodes of fever and severe localized inflammation. In seven affected families, we found six different missense mutations of the 55 kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1), five of which disrupt conserved extracellular disulfide bonds. Soluble plasma TNFR1 levels in patients were approximately half normal. Leukocytes bearing a C52F mutation showed increased membrane TNFR1 and reduced receptor cleavage following stimulation. We propose that the autoinflammatory phenotype results from impaired downregulation of membrane TNFR1 and diminished shedding of potentially antagonistic soluble receptor. TNFR1-associated periodic syndromes (TRAPS) establish an important class of mutations in TNF receptors. Detailed analysis of one such mutation suggests impaired cytokine receptor clearance as a novel mechanism of disease.  相似文献
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The Epstein-Barr virus gp350/220 envelope protein mediates virus attachment to the EBV/C3dg receptor (CR2) of human B lymphocytes. Synthetic peptides corresponding to two regions in gp350/220, which have a similar amino acid sequence with the complement C3dg protein, were used to identify a receptor binding epitope. A peptide corresponding to the N terminus of gp350/220, EDPGFFNVE, bound to purified CR2 and to CR2 positive but not CR2 negative B and T lymphoblastoid cell lines. Soluble monomeric gp350/220 peptide blocked CR2 binding to immobilized EBV, while multimeric forms of the N-terminal gp350/220 peptide conjugated to albumin efficiently blocked recombinant gp350/220 and C3dg binding to B cells as well as EBV-induced B cell proliferation and transformation. These studies indicate that the N-terminal region of gp350/220 plays a crucial role in mediating the earliest stages of EBV infection of B cells and provides a molecular basis for the restricted host cell EBV tropism.  相似文献
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A panel of B cell-specific monoclonal antibodies that identify the CR2/EBV receptor were examined for their ability to mimic the T-independent mitogenic agent, EBV, and thus activate human peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Two of four different anti-CR2/EBV monoclonal antibodies, OKB7 and AB-1, produced a 50-fold to 200-fold dose-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. One of the other monoclonal antibodies, anti-B2, had slight activity, and the other, HB-5, was completely inactive. One of the mitogenic antibodies, OKB7, which directly inhibits binding and infection of B cells by EBV in the absence of a second anti-immunoglobulin antibody, was examined in further detail. Both the intact antibody in soluble form and its pepsin-derived F(ab')2 fragment stimulated DNA synthesis of unseparated B and T lymphocytes. Peak stimulation of DNA synthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurred between 4 to 6 days. B cells were responsible for incorporation of [3H]thymidine. However, T cells were required for activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by OKB7. OKB7, as well as the other mitogenic monoclonal anti-EBV/CR2 receptor antibody, also induced B cells to differentiate after 6 to 10 days of culture as indicated by polyclonal Ig secretion. IgM was the predominate immunoglobulin secreted. These studies thus indicate that certain epitopes on the EBV/CR2 receptor trigger B cells to divide and differentiate. This pathway of B cell activation, in contrast to that produced by EBV, is T cell dependent.  相似文献
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