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1.
2.
Quantitative film detection of 3H and 14C in polyacrylamide gels by fluorography.   总被引:594,自引:0,他引:594  
Methods which use the scintillator PPO to record film images of 3H in chromatograms and polyacrylamide gels (fluorography) have been described elsewhere. This paper demonstrates that pre-exposure of the film to a brief flash of light greatly increases the sensitivity of fluorography. Pre-exposure also permits quantitative interpretation of the film image, because it corrects the non-linear relationship between radioactivity of the sample and absorbance of the film image. Therefore the distribution of radioactivity in the sample is accurately represented by microdensitometry of the image obtained on pre-exposed film. Using pre-exposed film 300 dis. 3H/min or 30 dis. 14C/min can be detected in a band in a gel in a 24-h exposure. The Appendix describes revisions and extensions of existing fluorographic procedures, including application to agarose gels and a rapid procedure for recovering PPO for re-use.  相似文献
3.
Point mutagenesis of the nuclear targeting sequence of nucleoplasmin has identified two interdependent basic domains. These are separated by 10 intervening "spacer" amino acids that tolerate point mutations and some insertions. Amino acids in both basic domains are required for nuclear targeting, and the transport defect of a mutation in one domain is amplified by a simultaneous mutation in the other. Therefore, these basic domains are interdependent. A strikingly similar motif of two clusters of basic residues is seen in the nuclear targeting sequence of Xenopus N1. It is also conserved in the related nucleolar protein NO38. Several other short sequences known to be necessary for nuclear targeting fall within a similar motif.  相似文献
4.
When injected into the cytoplasm of Vero cells, nucleoplasmin rapidly concentrates in a narrow layer around the nuclear envelope and then accumulates within the nucleus. Transport into the nucleus can be reversibly arrested at the perinuclear stage by metabolic inhibitors or by chilling. Nucleoplasmin-coated colloidal gold particles concentrate around the nuclear envelope of Vero cells or Xenopus oocytes, and by electron microscopy of oocytes appear to be associated with fibrils attached to nuclear pore complexes. Perinuclear accumulation is not observed for the nonmigrating nucleoplasmin core fragment or nonnuclear proteins. We propose two steps in nuclear migration of proteins: rapid binding around the nuclear envelope, possibly to pore-associated fibrils, followed by slower, energy-dependent translocation through nuclear pores.  相似文献
5.
J J Blow  R A Laskey 《Cell》1986,47(4):577-587
We demonstrate that cell-free extracts prepared from activated eggs of X. laevis by a method similar to that of Lohka and Masui initiate and complete semiconservative DNA replication of sperm nuclei and plasmid DNA. The efficiency of replication is comparable to that in the intact egg. Under optimal conditions 70%-100% of nuclei, and up to 38% of naked DNA molecules replicate completely. Genuine initiation of replication occurs rather than elongation of preformed primers or priming of irreversibly denatured templates. Rereplication of templates is observed under certain conditions. In addition to replicating DNA, these extracts also assemble nucleus-like structures from naked DNA.  相似文献
6.
Assembly of SV40 chromatin in a cell-free system from Xenopus eggs.   总被引:66,自引:0,他引:66  
R A Laskey  A D Mills  N R Morris 《Cell》1977,10(2):237-243
A cell-free system is described which assembles chromatin from purified DNA in 1 hr under physiological incubation conditions. It consists of a 145,000 x g (maximum) supernatant fraction from eggs of Xenopus laevis. It converts SV40 DNA to a nucleoprotein which co-sediments with naturally occurring SV40 chromatin and which can be cleaved by micrococcal nuclease to a highly ordered pattern of DNA fragments resembling those from digestion of liver chromatin. It inserts superhelical turns into relaxed, covalently closed DNA. The assembly process is not cooperative. Under limiting conditions, each DNA molecule becomes partially assembled. Assembly does not require replication of the DNA or protein synthesis, but occurs from a stored histone pool of at least 40 ng per egg. Under conditions of DNA excess, assembly becomes dependent upon the amount of exogenous histones added to the incubation. Apart from histones and a nicking-closing activity, chromatin assembly requires an additonal thermolabile factor which is present in the egg supernatant.  相似文献
7.
High sequence specificity of micrococcal nuclease.   总被引:58,自引:31,他引:27       下载免费PDF全文
The substrate specificity of micrococcal nuclease (EC 3.1.4.7.) has been studied. The enzyme recognises features of nucleotide composition, nucleotide sequence and tertiary structure of DNA. Kinetic analysis indicates that the rate of cleavage is 30 times greater at the 5' side of A or T than at G or C. Digestion of end-labelled linear DNA molecules of known sequence revealed that only a limited number of sites are cut, generating a highly specific pattern of fragments. The frequency of cleavage at each site has been determined and it may reflect the poor base overlap in the 5' T-A 3' stack as well as the length of contiguous A and T residues. The same sequence preferences are found when DNA is assembled into nucleosomes. Deoxyribonuclease 1 (EC 3.1.4.5.) recognises many of the same sequence features. Micrococcal nuclease also mimics nuclease S1 selectively cleaving an inverted repeat in supercoiled pBR322. The value of micrococcal nuclease as a "non-specific" enzymatic probe for studying nucleosome phasing is questioned.  相似文献
8.
9.
Regulated replication of DNA microinjected into eggs of Xenopus laevis   总被引:39,自引:0,他引:39  
R M Harland  R A Laskey 《Cell》1980,21(3):761-771
Purified circular DNA of SV40 or polyoma virus has been injected into unfertilized eggs of Xenopus laevis. Injected DNA initiates and completes multiple rounds of semiconservative replication while observing cellular regulatory signals. Thus replication initiation of double-stranded templates is induced after the oocyte is matured in vitro by progesterone. Only one round of replication of injected DNA is observed in a single cell cycle. When protein synthesis is inhibited unreplicated molecules continue to initiate replication at an undiminished rate, but reinitiation on previously replicated molecules is completely and selectively abolished. The DNA sequence requirements for the replication of injected DNA have been investigated. A variety of procaryotic DNA molecules and circularized fragments of SV40 or polyoma DNA replicate, regardless of whether they contain the viral origin of DNA replication. These results suggest that a specialized DNA sequence is not essential for the initiation of semiconservative DNA replication in the Xenopus embryo, nor is a specialized sequence essential for the mechanism which prevents reinitiation on a molecule which has already replicated within a cell cycle. The possibility is discussed that viral origins of replication are not valid models for the eucaryotic chromosome but are adaptations for uncoupling viral replication from the mechanism which prevents reinitiation within a cell cycle.  相似文献
10.
We have studied the pathway of nuclear assembly from demembranated sperm chromatin by fractionating a cell-free system from Xenopus eggs (Lohka, M. J., and Y. Masui. 1983. Science (Wash. DC). 220:719-721). Both the soluble fraction and a washed vesicular fraction are required for formation of normal nuclei that initiate replication in vitro. The soluble fraction alone decondenses chromatin and the vesicular fraction alone surrounds chromatin with membranes. Both fractions are required for formation of nuclear pore complexes. Recombining these two fractions recovers approximately 100% of the nuclear assembly and DNA replication activities. Restricting the proportion of the vesicular fraction slows acquisition of the nuclear membrane and allows observation of immature nuclear pores ("prepores"). These form as arrays around and within the chromatin mass before membranes form. Subsequently membrane vesicles bind to these prepores, linking them by a single membrane throughout the chromatin mass. At the periphery this single membrane is surrounded by an outer membrane. In mature nuclei all membranes are at the periphery, the two membranes are linked by pores, and no prepores are seen. Nuclear assembly and replication are inhibited by preincubating the chromatin with the vesicular fraction. However nuclear assembly is accelerated by preincubating the condensed chromatin with the soluble fraction. This also decreases the lag before DNA replication. Initiation of DNA replication is only observed after normal nuclei have fully reassembled, increasing the evidence that replication depends on nuclear structure. The pathway of nuclear assembly and its relationship to DNA replication are discussed.  相似文献
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