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1.
Sequence change in different hypervariable regions of the external membrane glycoprotein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was studied. Viral RNA associated with cell-free virus particles circulating in plasma and proviral DNA present in HIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted from blood samples of two currently asymptomatic hemophiliac patients over a 5-year period. HIV sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction to allow analysis in the V3, V4, and V5 hypervariable regions of gp120. Rapid sequence change, consisting of regular replacements by a succession of distinct viral populations, was found in both plasma virus and PBMC provirus populations. Significant differences between the frequencies of sequence variants in DNA and RNA populations within the same sample were observed, indicating that at any one time point, the predominant plasma virus variants were antigenically distinct from viruses encoded by HIV DNA sequences in PBMCs. How these findings contribute to current models of HIV pathogenesis is discussed.  相似文献
2.
Viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples collected from five individuals during the period of viremia before seroconversion in primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequence analysis of amplified DNA from the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions indicated that the initial virus population of each acutely infected individual was completely homogeneous in sequence. No intrasample variability was found among the 44,090 nucleotides sequenced in this region of env, contrasting with the high degree of variability normally found in seropositive individuals. Paradoxically, substantial sequence variability was found in the normally high conserved gag gene (encoding p17) in most of the preseroconversion samples. The diversity of p17 sequences in samples that were homogeneous in V3 and V4 can most readily be explained by the existence of strong selection for specific env sequences either upon transmission or in the interval between exposure and seroconversion in the exposed individual. Evidence that localizes the selected region upon transmission to V3 is provided by the similarity or identity of V3 loop sequences in five individuals with epidemiologically unrelated HIV-1 infections, while regions flanking the V3 loop and the V4 hypervariable region were highly divergent. The actual V3 sequences were similar to those associated with macrophage tropism in primary isolates of HIV, irrespective of whether infection was acquired by sexual contact or parenterally through transfusion of contaminated factor VIII. Proviral DNA sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells remained homogeneous in the V3 and V4 regions (and variable in p17gag) for several months after seroconversion. The persistence of HIV sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells identical to those found at primary infection in the absence of continued virus expression provides an explanation for the previously observed differences in the composition of circulating DNA and RNA populations in sequential samples from seropositive individuals.  相似文献
3.
The receptors for mammalian sweet and umami taste   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
Sweet and umami (the taste of monosodium glutamate) are the main attractive taste modalities in humans. T1Rs are candidate mammalian taste receptors that combine to assemble two heteromeric G-protein-coupled receptor complexes: T1R1+3, an umami sensor, and T1R2+3, a sweet receptor. We now report the behavioral and physiological characterization of T1R1, T1R2, and T1R3 knockout mice. We demonstrate that sweet and umami taste are strictly dependent on T1R-receptors, and show that selective elimination of T1R-subunits differentially abolishes detection and perception of these two taste modalities. To examine the basis of sweet tastant recognition and coding, we engineered animals expressing either the human T1R2-receptor (hT1R2), or a modified opioid-receptor (RASSL) in sweet cells. Expression of hT1R2 in mice generates animals with humanized sweet taste preferences, while expression of RASSL drives strong attraction to a synthetic opiate, demonstrating that sweet cells trigger dedicated behavioral outputs, but their tastant selectivity is determined by the nature of the receptors.  相似文献
4.
Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the dramatic increase of rice production in the world. Despite this, little attention has been given to studying the genetic basis of heterosis in rice. In this paper, we report a diallel analysis of heterosis using two classes of molecular markers: restriction fragment length polymorphisms, (RFLPs) and microsatellites. Eight lines, which represent a significant portion of hybrid rice germ plasm, were crossed in all possible pairs, and the F1s were evaluated for yield and yield component traits in a replicated field trial. The parental lines were surveyed for polymorphisms with 117 RFLP probes and ten microsatellites, resulting in a total of 76 polymorphic markers well-spaced in the rice RFLP map. The results indicated that high level heterosis is common among these crosses: more than 100% midparent and 40% better-parent heterosis were observed in many F1s, including some crosses between maintainer lines. Heterosis was found to be much higher for yield than for yield component traits, which fits a multiplicative model almost perfectly. Between 16 and 30 marker loci (positive markers) detected highly significant effects on yield or its component traits. Heterozygosity was significantly correlated with several attributes of performance and heterosis. Correlations based on positive markers (specific heterozygosity) were large for midparent heterosis of yield and seeds/panicle and also for F1 kernel weight. These large correlations may have practical utility for predicting heterosis.  相似文献
5.
 Domesticated rice differs from the wild progenitor in large arrays of morphological and physiological traits. The present study was conducted to identify the genetic factors controlling the differences between cultivated rice and its wild progenitor, with the intention to assess the genetic basis of the changes associated with the processes of rice domestication. A total of 19 traits, including seven qualitative and 12 quantitative traits, that are related to domestication were scored in an F2 population from a cross between a variety of the Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and an accession of the common wild rice (O. rufipogon). Loci controlling the inheritance of these traits were determined by making use of a molecular linkage map consisting of 348 molecular-marker loci (313 RFLPs, 12 SSRs and 23 AFLPs) based on this F2 population. All seven qualitative traits were each controlled by a single Mendelian locus. Analysis of the 12 quantitative traits resolved a total of 44 putative QTLs with an average of 3.7 QTLs per trait. The amount of variation explained by individual QTLs ranged from a low of 6.9% to a high of 59.8%, and many of the QTLs accounted for more than 20% of the variation. Thus, genes of both major and minor effect were involved in the differences between wild and cultivated rice. The results also showed that most of the genetic factors (qualitative or QTLs) controlling the domestication-related traits were concentrated in a few chromosomal blocks. Such a clustered distribution of the genes may provide explanations for the genetic basis of the “domestication syndrome” observed in evolutionary studies and also for the “linkage drag” that occurs in many breeding programs. The information on the genetic basis of some desirable traits possessed by the wild parent may also be useful for facilitating the utilization of these traits in rice-breeding programs. Received: 1 June 1998 / Accepted: 28 July 1998  相似文献
6.
Identification and mapping of two brown planthopper resistance genes in rice   总被引:24,自引:0,他引:24  
The brown planthopper (BPH) is one of the most serious insect pests of rice. In this study, we conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of the BPH resistance of ’B5’, a highly resistant line that derived its resistant genes from the wild rice Oryza officinalis. Insect resistance was evaluated using 250 F3 families from a cross between ’B5’ and ’Minghui 63’, based on which the resistance of each F2 plant was inferred. Two bulks were made by mixing, respectively, DNA samples from highly resistant plants and highly susceptible plants selected from the F2 population. The bulks were surveyed for restriction fragment length polymorphism using probes representing all 12 chromosomes at regular intervals. The survey revealed two genomic regions on chromosome 3 and chromosome 4 respectively that contained genes for BPH resistance. The existence of the two loci were further assessed by QTL (quantitative trait locus) analysis, which resolved these two loci to a 14.3-cM interval on chromosome 3 and a 0.4-cM interval on chromosome 4. Comparison of the chromosomal locations and reactions to BPH biotypes indicated that these two genes are different from at least nine of the ten previously identified BPH resistance genes. Both of the genes had large effects on BPH resistance and the two loci acted essentially independent of each other in determining t he resistance. These two genes may be a useful BPH resistance resource for rice breeding programs. Received: 6 March 2000 / Accepted: 28 July 2000  相似文献
7.
 The discovery of wide-compatibility varieties (WCVs) that are able to produce normal fertility hybrids when crossed both to indica and japonica rice has enabled the fertility barrier between indica and japonica subspecies to be broken and provided the possibility of developing inter-subspecific hybrids in rice breeding programs. However, a considerable variation in the fertility level of hybrids from the same WCV crossed to different varieties has often been observed. One hypothesis for this variable fertility is that additional genes are involved in hybrid fertility besides the wide-compatibility gene (WCG). To assess such a possibility, we performed a genome-wide analysis by assaying a large population from a three-way cross ‘02428’/‘Nanjing 11’//‘Balilla’ using a total of 171 RFLP probes detecting 191 polymorphic loci distributed throughout the entire rice linkage map. Our analysis recovered 3 loci conferring significant effects on hybrid fertility. The major locus on chromosome 6 coincided in chromosomal location with the previously identified S 5 locus, and the 2 minor loci that mapped to chromosomes 2 and 12, respectively, were apparently distinct from all previously reported hybrid sterility genes. Interaction between the indica and japonica alleles at each of the loci caused a reduction in hybrid fertility. The joint effect of the 2 minor loci could lead to partial sterility even in the presence of the WCG. The location of the S 5 locus on the molecular marker linkage map was determined to be approximately 1.0 cM from the RFLP locus R2349. This tight linkage will be useful for marker-aided transfer of the WCG in hybrid rice breeding and for map-based cloning. Received: 5 February 1997 / Accepted: 4 April 1997  相似文献
8.
The p53 tumor suppressor protein, which is commonly mutated in human cancers, has been shown to interact directly with virally encoded from papillomavirus, adenovirus, and simian virus 40. The disruption of p53 function may be required for efficient replication of certain viruses and may also play a role in the development of virally induced malignancies. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with the development of B-cell lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Here we show that the EBV immediate-early protein, BZLF1 (Z), which is responsible for initiating the switch from latent to lytic infection, can interact directly in vitro and in vivo with the tumor suppressor protein, p53. This interaction requires the coiled-coil dimerization domain of the Z protein and the carboxy-terminal portion of p53. Overexpression of wild-type p53 inhibits the ability of Z to disrupt viral latency. Likewise, Z inhibits p53-dependent transactivation in lymphoid cells. The direct interaction between Z and p53 may play a role in regulating the switch from latent to lytic viral infection.  相似文献
9.
转Bt基因棉田节肢动物群落结构特征研究   总被引:21,自引:3,他引:18  
比较研究了转Bt基因棉--保铃棉、中棉30和常规棉常规防治、常规棉不防治4种类型棉田的节肢动物群落构成及结构.结果表明,保铃棉、中棉30的物种丰富度有一定降低(2.4%~16.3%),个体总量显著减小(71.0%~78.3%).其中植食性亚群落的优势种组成及次序改变,其个体总量降低最多,捕食性和寄生性亚群落的个体总量明显增加.中棉30、保铃棉与常规棉不防治处理群落的相似系数依次最高(0.8243)、次高(0.7320),保铃棉与常规棉常规防治居第三(0.3380),常规棉常规防治与常规棉不防治居第四(0.3128),中棉30与常规棉常规防治最小(0.2665).各处理多样性指数和均匀度值的高低次序为中棉30(分别为2.3712和0.6428)>常规棉不防治(2.3654和0.6251)>保铃棉(2.1364和0.5791)>常规棉常规防治(1.0877和0.2949),优势度次序为常规棉常规防治(0.8726)>保铃棉(0.3528)>常规棉不防治(0.1178)>中棉30(0.1048).转Bt基因棉的害虫防治宜采取与常规棉不同的IPM策略和方法.  相似文献
10.
In the previous study, we cloned a new gene, named NGX6, related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) at 9p. To study its function in the pathogenesis of NPC, we have investigated changes in protein synthesis between NPC cell line HNE1 and that transfected with the gene. Using high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis, we found that 22 protein spots showed variations that were significant and reproducible. Analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and database searches identified seven proteins that were upregulated and seven proteins that were downregulated. These proteins included Fas, zinc-finger protein (ZNF), RAB, and Ah receptor-interacting protein (AIP). The functional implications of the identified proteins are discussed.  相似文献
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