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1.
The CD4 antigen: physiological ligand and HIV receptor   总被引:61,自引:0,他引:61  
Q J Sattentau  R A Weiss 《Cell》1988,52(5):631-633
2.
We have analyzed the binding of soluble CD4 (sCD4) to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions (isolates IIIB and RF) at 4 and 37 degrees C by using a combination of gel exclusion chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection systems. The sCD4 binding curve at 37 degrees C indicates that the affinity of the interaction of sCD4 with gp120 on the virion surface is indistinguishable from the affinity of sCD4 for the equivalent concentration of soluble gp120. At 4 degrees C, however, the affinity of sCD4 for virion-bound gp120 but not for soluble gp120 is reduced by about 20-fold. Binding of sCD4 (greater than 0.2 microgram/ml) to virions at 37 degrees C but not 4 degrees C induces the rapid dissociation of a major proportion of gp120 from gp41 on the virion surface. This dissociation requires occupancy by sCD4 of multiple (probably two) binding sites on a gp120-gp41 oligomer. At 37 degrees C there are two components to the neutralizing action of sCD4 on HIV-1; reversible, competitive inhibition at low sCD4 concentrations (less than 0.2 microgram/ml) and essentially irreversible inhibition due to gp120 loss at higher sCD4 concentrations. At 4 degrees C, sCD4 neutralizes HIV infectivity by competitive inhibition alone. These findings may have implications for the HIV-CD4+ cell binding and fusion reactions and the mechanism by which sCD4 blocks infectivity.  相似文献
3.
Identification of the residues in human CD4 critical for the binding of HIV   总被引:52,自引:0,他引:52  
The CD4 molecule is a T cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with high affinity with the envelope glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, thus serving as a cellular receptor for this virus. To define the sites on CD4 essential for binding to gp120, we produced several truncated, soluble derivatives of CD4 and a series of 26 substitution mutants. Quantitative binding analyses with the truncated proteins demonstrate that the determinants for high affinity binding lie solely with the first 106 amino acids of CD4 (the V1 domain), a region having significant sequence homology to immunoglobulin variable regions. Analysis of the substitution mutants further defines a discrete binding site within this domain that overlaps a region structurally homologous to the second complementarity-determining region of antibody variable domains. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibition of virus infection and virus-mediated cell fusion by soluble CD4 proteins depends on their association with gp120 at this binding site.  相似文献
4.
A panel of anti-gp120 human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), CD4-IgG, and sera from people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was tested for neutralization of nine primary HIV-1 isolates, one molecularly cloned primary strain (JR-CSF), and two strains (IIIB and MN) adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines. All the viruses were grown in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and were tested for their ability to infect these cells in the presence and absence of the reagents mentioned above. In general, the primary isolates were relatively resistant to neutralization by the MAbs tested, compared with the T-cell line-adapted strains. However, one HuMAb, IgG1b12, was able to neutralize most of the primary isolates at concentrations of < or = 1 microgram/ml. Usually, the inability of a HuMAb to neutralize a primary isolate was not due merely to the absence of the antibody epitope from the virus; the majority of the HuMAbs bound with high affinity to monomeric gp120 molecules derived from various strains but neutralized the viruses inefficiently. We infer therefore that the mechanism of resistance of primary isolates to most neutralizing antibodies is complex, and we suggest that it involves an inaccessibility of antibody binding sites in the context of the native glycoprotein complex on the virion. Such a mechanism would parallel that which was previously postulated for soluble CD4 resistance. We conclude that studies of HIV-1 neutralization that rely on strains adapted to growth in transformed T-cell lines yield the misleading impression that HIV-1 is readily neutralized. The more relevant primary HIV-1 isolates are relatively resistant to neutralization, although these isolates can be potently neutralized by a subset of human polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies.  相似文献
5.
We have probed the structures of monomeric and oligomeric gp120 glycoproteins from the LAI isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); most of these MAbs are directed against continuous epitopes. On native monomeric gp120, most of the first conserved (C1) domain is accessible to MAbs, although some regions of C1 are relatively inaccessible. All of the MAbs directed against the C2, C3, and C5 domains bind preferentially to denatured monomeric gp120, indicating that these regions of gp120 are poorly accessible on the native monomer, although the extreme C terminus in C5 is well exposed. Segments of the V1, V2, and V3 loops are exposed on the surface of monomeric gp120, although the base of the V3 loop is inaccessible. A portion of C4 is also available for MAb binding on monomeric gp120, as is the extreme C terminus in C5. However, on oligomeric gp120-gp41 complexes, only the V2 and V3 loops (and perhaps V1) are well exposed and a segment of the C4 region is partially exposed; continuous epitopes in C1 and C5 that are accessible to antibodies on monomeric gp120 are occluded on the oligomer. Although deletion of the V1, V2, and V3 loops resulted in increased exposure of several discontinuous epitopes overlapping the CD4-binding site, the exposure of most continuous epitopes on the monomeric gp120 glycoprotein was not affected. These results imply a HIV-1 gp120 structure in which the conserved continuous determinants are inaccessible; in some cases, this inaccessibility is due to intramolecular interactions between conserved regions, and in other cases, it is due to intermolecular interactions with other components of the glycoprotein spike. These findings have implications for the design of subunit vaccines based on gp120.  相似文献
6.
We have analyzed a panel of eight murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that depend on the V2 domain for binding to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120. Each MAb is sensitive to amino acid changes within V2, and some are affected by substitutions elsewhere. With one exception, the MAbs were not reactive with peptides from the V2 region, or only poorly so. Hence their ability to bind recombinant strain IIIB gp120 depended on the preservation of native structure. Three MAbs cross-reacted with strain RF gp120, but only one cross-reacted with MN gp120, and none bound SF-2 gp120. Four MAbs neutralized HIV-1 IIIB with various potencies, and the one able to bind MN gp120 neutralized that virus. Peptide serology indicated that antibodies cross-reactive with the HxB2 V1 and V2 regions are rarely present in HIV-1-positive sera, but the relatively conserved segment between the V1 and V2 loops was recognized by antibodies in a significant fraction of sera. Antibodies able to block the binding of V2 MAbs to IIIB or MN gp120 rarely exist in sera from HIV-1-infected humans; more common in these sera are antibodies that enhance the binding of V2 MAbs to gp120. This enhancement effect of HIV-1-positive sera can be mimicked by several human MAbs to different discontinuous gp120 epitopes. Soluble CD4 enhanced binding of one V2 MAb to oligomeric gp120 but not to monomeric gp120, perhaps by inducing conformational changes in the oligomer.  相似文献
7.
We have investigated the molecular basis of biological differences observed among cell line-adapted isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in response to receptor binding by using a soluble form of CD4 (sCD4) as a receptor mimic. We find that sCD4 binds to the envelope glycoproteins of all of the HIV-1 isolates tested with affinities within a threefold range, whereas those of the HIV-2 and SIV isolates have relative affinities for sCD4 two- to eightfold lower than those of HIV-1. Treatment of infected cells with sCD4 induced the dissociation of gp120 from gp41 and increased the exposure of a cryptic gp41 epitope on all of the HIV-1 isolates. By contrast, neither dissociation of the outer envelope glycoprotein nor increased exposure of the transmembrane glycoprotein was observed when sCD4 bound to HIV-2- or SIV-infected cells. Moreover, immunoprecipitation with sCD4 resulted in the coprecipitation of the surface and transmembrane glycoproteins from virions of the HIV-2 and SIV isolates, whereas the surface envelope glycoprotein alone was precipitated from HIV-1. However, treatment of HIV-1-, HIV-2-, and SIV-infected cells with sCD4 did result in an increase in exposure of their V2 and V3 loops, as detected by enhanced antibody reactivity. This demonstrates that receptor binding to the outer envelope glycoprotein induces certain conformational changes which are common to all of these viruses and others which are restricted to cell line-passaged isolates of HIV-1.  相似文献
8.
The murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 5A8, which is reactive with domain 2 of CD4, blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and syncytium formation of CD4+ cells (L. C. Burkly, D. Olson, R. Shapiro, G. Winkler, J. J. Rosa, D. W. Thomas, C. Williams, and P. Chisholm, J. Immunol., in press). Here we show that, in contrast to the CD4 domain 1 MAb 6H10, 5A8 and its Fab fragment do not block soluble CD4 (sCD4) binding to virions, whereas they do inhibit sCD4-induced exposure of cryptic epitopes on gp41 and dissociation of gp120 from virions. Two other MAbs, OKT4 and L120, which are reactive with domains 3 and 4 of CD4, have little or no effect on HIV-1 infection, syncytium formation, or sCD4-induced conformational changes in the envelope glycoproteins. The mechanisms of action of 5A8 and 6H10 can be further distinguished in syncytium inhibition assays: 6H10 blocks competitively, while 5A8 does not. We opine that 5A8 blocks HIV-1 infection and fusion by interfering with conformational changes in gp120/gp41 and/or CD4 that are necessary for virus-cell fusion.  相似文献
9.
HIV infection and the immune system   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
10.
A predicted three-dimensional structure of the two N-terminal extracellular domains of human CD4 antigen, a cell surface glycoprotein, is reported. This region of CD4, particularly the first domain, has been identified as containing the binding region for the envelope gp120 protein of the human immunodeficiency virus. The model was predicted based on the sequence homology of each domain with the variable light chain of immunoglobulins. The framework beta-sheet regions were taken from the crystal coordinates of REI. For one region in the first domain of CD4 there was an ambiguity in the alignment with REI and two alternate models are presented. Loops connecting the framework were modelled from fragments selected from a database of main chain coordinates from all known protein structures. Residues identified as involved in binding gp120 have been located in several other studies within the first domain of CD4. Epitopes from eight monoclonal antibodies have been mapped onto residues in both domains. Competition of these antibodies with each other and with gp120 can be interpreted from the structural model.  相似文献
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