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Peter Zwick 《Hydrobiologia》1990,194(3):207-223
Upstream oviposition flights of several Plecoptera species of the genera Leuctra, Nemoura, Isoperla and Siphonoperla along the Breitenbach, Hesse, Germany are inferred from 1. oviposition occuring upstream from emergence areas; 2. size differences and size-shifts between emerging and egg-laying females; 3. concentration of oviposition in upstream sections of the emergence area. The last point relies on direct catches of egg-laying females with sticky traps, and on over-representation of old, mature females in upstream emergence traps towards the end of, or even after actual emergence periods. Criteria for age class discrimination of the respective taxa are described. The validity of the present and of other indirect evidence for directed adult flights and the significance of adult upstream displacement are discussed. Optical orientation cues are suggested. Females of Leuctra prima and Siphonoperla torrentium are shown to gain 25–50% dry weight by feeding in the terrestrial environment; general information indicates many other Plecoptera may be similar in this respect. Terrestrial adult life is shown to last for 3–8 weeks. This long time, evidence of important flight activity and feeding together suggest that the terrestrial phase is spent as an active adult, the inevitable risks of which may form an important control of population dynamics.  相似文献
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Beate Wolf  Peter Zwick 《Oecologia》1989,79(4):431-438
Summary Nemurella pictetii Klapálek, 1900 (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) has bi-or trimodal emergence patterns in Central Europe. The emergence threshold temperature is about 8°C. Egg development is direct. The slopes of regressions describing its temperature dependence do not differ significantly between English, Norwegian and German populations, but the intercepts (i.e., the incubation period at 0°C) do. Regular sampling of a benthic population near Schlitz, in Hesse, West Germany, showed that part of the offspring of the first emergence group grew quickly and produced a second emergence peak. The remaining offspring of the first generation grew more slowly and overwintered, together with the offspring of the second emergence peak. This population exhibits partial bivoltinism. The potential for bivoltinism was also shown in laboratory rearings of a German population at a constant 14°C: many eggs yielded normal adults after about 120 days. Larval growth rates were up to 2.2% body length day-1, much higher than for English Nemurella (unimodal emergence), or any other stonefly. The thermal sum (degree-days above 0°C) accumulated between the two emergence peaks, at the German sites studied, resembled cumulated degree-days in a laboratory culture. For an Austrian population with trimodal emergence, degree-days accumulated in the field were lower, suggesting a lower temperature demand and partial trivoltinism. This is the only case of confirmed plurivoltinism in Plecoptera. Nemurella pictetii seems to have lost seasonal life cycle cues, enabling the opportunistic use of favourable local conditions. Population synchrony appears to be regulated by the thermal demand for development and the emergence threshold temperature.  相似文献
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The genus Phanoperla (=Dyaperla Banks, 1939) (Plecoptera: Perlidae: Perlini) is revised and generic diagnoses are provided for adults and larvae. Diagnostic and constitutive characters of the tribe Neoperlini are discussed, and Chinoperla Zwick, 1980, is shown to be the closest relative of Phanoperla. Many past misidentifications of Phanoperla species have been corrected by the use of characters recently recognized as important, namely the structure of the internal genitalia of male and female specimens and particularly the complex pattern of spines on the male penial sac made visible by eversion of this structure, and details of sculpturing of the egg chorion.
The following species of Phanoperla are recognized: amorpha sp.n.; anomala (Banks, 1939); bakeri (Banks, 1924); ceylonica Kawai, 1975; comuta sp.n.; flaveola (Klapálek, 1921), comb.n. ( =clarissa (Banks, 1913), syn.n.), (=Neoperla hageni Banks, 1920, syn.n.), (= N.consimilis Banks, 1924, syn.n.); guttata sp.n.; himalayana Zwick, 1977 (= siwalika Harper, 1977); limosa (Hagen, 1858); maculata sp.n.; maindroni (Navas, 1926), comb.n.; malayana sp.n.; minutissima (Enderlein, 1909); nana sp.n.; nervosa Banks, 1939; nuwara Kawai, 1975; omega sp.n.; pallipennis (Banks, 1938); parva sp.n.; pumilio (Klapálek, 1921), comb.n.; peniculus Kawai, 1969a; schmidi sp.n.; sertispina Jewett, 1975; srilanka sp.n.; sumatrae sp.n.; testacea (Hagen, 1858); wedda sp.n. P.claggi (Banks, 1938) is a nomen nudum.
All species are (re-)described and figured; all primary types have been examined. A key to species is provided. Most species can be assigned to one of seven species groups which are defined.
Phanoperla is endemic to the Oriental Region. Species groups are generally widespread, but individual species are in most cases known only from restricted areas.  相似文献
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Today’s knowledge of worldwide species diversity of 19 families of aquatic Diptera in Continental Waters is presented. Nevertheless, we have to face for certain in most groups a restricted knowledge about distribution, ecology and systematic, particularly in the tropical environments. At the same time we realize a dramatically decline or even lack of specialists being able, having the time or the opportunity to extend or even secure the present information. The respective families with approximate numbers of aquatic species are: Blephariceridae (308), Deuterophlebiidae (14), Nyphomyiidae (7), Psychodidae (∼2.000), Scatopsidae (∼5), Tanyderidae (41), Ptychopteridae (69), Dixidae (173), Corethrellidae (97), Chaoboridae (∼50), Thaumaleidae (∼170), Ceratopogonidae (∼6.000), Stratiomyidae (∼43), Empididae (∼660), Lonchopteridae (2), Syrphidae (∼1.080), Sciomyzidae (∼190), Ephydridae (∼1.500), Muscidae (∼870). Numbers of aquatic species will surely increase with increased ecological and taxonomical efforts. Guest editors: E. V. Balian, C. Lévêque, H. Segers & K. Martens Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment  相似文献
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