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We explore the issues relevant to those types of ecosystems containing new combinations of species that arise through human action, environmental change, and the impacts of the deliberate and inadvertent introduction of species from other regions. Novel ecosystems (also termed 'emerging ecosystems') result when species occur in combinations and relative abundances that have not occurred previously within a given biome. Key characteristics are novelty, in the form of new species combinations and the potential for changes in ecosystem functioning, and human agency, in that these ecosystems are the result of deliberate or inadvertent human action. As more of the Earth becomes transformed by human actions, novel ecosystems increase in importance, but are relatively little studied. Either the degradation or invasion of native or 'wild' ecosystems or the abandonment of intensively managed systems can result in the formation of these novel systems. Important considerations are whether these new systems are persistent and what values they may have. It is likely that it may be very difficult or costly to return such systems to their previous state, and hence consideration needs to be given to developing appropriate management goals and approaches.  相似文献
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Although Spartina anglica C.E. Hubbard continues to be invasive in many countries, this species has experienced a drastic decline in coastal China over the last decade. We hypothesize that changes in the duration of tidal immersion were responsible for this decline because the elevation of the S. anglica-dominated area in coastal China has increased greatly over the last decade. We examined the effects of the duration of simulated tidal immersion and plant material provenance on growth, asexual reproduction, biomass accumulation, and allocation (percent of above-ground biomass to total biomass) of S. anglica in a greenhouse experiment. The provenance of S. anglica did not significantly affect any traits measured except for height, stalk diameter, and leaf area. However, all traits were affected by the duration of immersion. Plants grown under 6 h of immersion were taller and had more leaves, more roots, and larger leaf area than those under 2, 4, 8, and 10 h of immersion. Asexual traits and biomass of the plants grown under 6 h of immersion were significantly larger than those under other immersion durations. The results suggested that S. anglica benefits from tidal immersion and decreasing duration of tidal immersion may have resulted in the decline of the S. anglica populations in coastal China. Thus, controlling the duration of tidal immersion may be an effective way of controlling invasiveness of this species elsewhere in the world.  相似文献
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The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) held its 5th plenary session in Bonn during March 2017. After last year’s pollinator assessment, the biodiversity assessments currently being undertaken are shortly to be available for peer review. The scientific community can play an important role in both conducting assessments and in the peer-review process. Independent scientists can contribute to ensure that these assessments are comprehensive with respect to the current state and future trends of biodiversity and the ecosystem services. We outline possibilities for deeper involvement of the scientific community in the IPBES process and draw attention to upcoming reviews in 2017.  相似文献
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Threatened species, red listing and an increase in protected areas have been, and currently remain, key foci for nature conservation. Yet as it becomes more evident we are living in the Anthropocene biosphere the relevance and value of those activities declines. The “new conservation”, controversially argued for by some since 2011, has different foci and strategies, yet they are perhaps too anthropic. A nature conservation for the Anthropocene biosphere must be built on an understanding of biocultural diversity, take account of the conservation potential of novel ecosystems, de-emphasise the role of protected areas while examining the role of novel ex situ approaches to biodiversity conservation and review effort and expenditure on Red Listing of threatened species as conservation actions. The 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress offers potential to provide global leadership towards a new nature conservation for the Anthropocene biosphere.  相似文献
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Biodiversity and the services ecosystems provide have built the foundation of human civilization and provide for the welfare of people. With the increase of the human population it has become clearer than ever that the human exploitation of our natural resources leads to detrimental interactions between ecological and sociological systems. Only concerted and global actions will be able to reverse ongoing biodiversity loss. In response to these needs, the United Nations agreed the establishment of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) in 2010. Here, we report on the progress IPBES has made since its inception, and suggest how the scientific community can engage with this important science-policy interface.  相似文献
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The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) held its 6th plenary session in Medellin (Colombia) during March 2018. Several assessments were due for acceptance by the plenary. We here give news from the plenary and the platform, sketch out important key messages from the regional assessments as well as of the global thematic assessment on land degradation and restoration. We further give an outlook on the work ahead and potential for contributions from the scientific community to the important work of IPBES.  相似文献
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