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The agronomically important Indica (group 1) rice varieties IR64, IR72, hybrid restorer line Minghui 63, and BG90-2 were co-transformed by microbombardment of embryogenic suspensions with plasmids that contain the Xa21 gene which confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and the hph gene for resistance to hygromycin B. Six of the 55 transgenic R0 plant lines containing the Xa21 gene displayed high levels of resistance to the pathogen, and no partial resistance was observed. The trait was stably inherited in subsequent generations, and transgenic plants are currently in field tests. The ability to transfer agronomically important genes into elite Indica rice varieties demonstrates the applicability of genetic engineering for the agronomic improvement of rice.  相似文献
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The linear, 6397-base pair (bp), mitochondrial S-1 DNA molecule from maize contains a 420-bp segment that is homologous with the chloroplast gene (psbA) that codes for the quinone binding protein of photosystem II. This is the first report of a chloroplast sequence in a naturally occurring viral-like or plasmid DNA. The complete sequence of the S-1 chloroplast segment has been compared with homologous regions of six different chloroplast genes. The S-1 segment has diverged from the other genes both by length mutation and base substitution. Several of the length mutations are exact adjacent tandem duplications of 4 and 5 bp similar to "footprints" left after excision of transposable elements in maize nuclear DNA.  相似文献
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Transposons are effective mutagens alternative to T-DNA for the generation of insertional mutants in many plant species including those whose transformation is inefficient. The current strategies of transposon tagging are usually slow and labor-intensive and yield low frequency of tagged lines. We have constructed a series of transposon tagging vectors based on three approaches: (i) Ac TPase controlled by glucocorticoid binding domain/VP16 acidic activation domain/Gal4 DNA-binding domain (GVG) chemical-inducible expression system; (ii) deletion of Ac TPase via Cre- lox site-specific recombination that was initially triggered by Ds excision; and (iii) suppression of early transposition events in transformed rice callus through a dual-functional hygromycin resistance gene in a novel Ds element ( HPT-Ds ). We tested these vectors in transgenic rice and characterized the transposition events. Our results showed that these vectors are useful resources for functional genomics of rice and other crop plants. The vectors are freely available for the community.  相似文献
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The HSP90 (heat shock protein 90), SGT1 (suppressor of G-two allele ofSkp1), and RAR1 (required forMla12 resistance) proteins in plants form a molecular chaperone complex which is involved in diverse biological signaling including development and disease resistance. The three components of this complex interact via specific protein binding motifs and recruit client proteins to initiate a specific signaling cascade in response to cellular or environmental cues. Although the functions of this chaperone complex during development/growth have not been well characterized, the HSP90 chaperone and SGT1 and RAR1 co-chaperones have been demonstrated to be essential signaling components of plant immune responses. These three proteins also play important roles in activation of the mammalian Nod genes, which possess a structurally conserved plant resistance (R) protein motif, NB-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat). In this review, we summarize the structures and functions of these molecular chaperones, and discuss their putative modes of action in plant immune responses.  相似文献
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Transposons are effective mutagens alternative to T-DNA for the generation of insertional mutants in many plant species including those whose transformation is inefficient. The current strategies of transposon tagging are usually slow and labor-intensive and yield low frequency of tagged lines. We have constructed a series of transposon tagging vectors based on three approaches: (i) AcTPase controlled by glucocorticoid binding domain/VP16 acidic activation domain/Gal4 DNA-binding domain (GVG) chemical-inducible expression system; (ii) deletion of AcTPase via Cre-lox site-specific recombination that was initially triggered by Ds excision; and (iii) suppression of early transposition events in transformed rice callus through a dual-functional hygromycin resistance gene in a novel Ds element (HPT-Ds), We tested these vectors in transgenic rice and characterized the transposition events. Our results showed that these vectors are useful resources for functional genomics of rice and other crop plants. The vectors are freely available for the community,  相似文献
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The RaxHR two-component regulatory system (TCS) of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is required for AvrXa21 activity. RaxH is a typical transmembrane histidine protein kinase (HK), whereas RaxR is its concomitant response regulator (RR). Here, we report the isolation of soluble, active amounts of recombinant His-tagged full-length RaxH and RaxR following growth of Escherichia coli over-expressing strains in the presence of sorbitol and glycine betaine. Full-length His-RaxH showed similar autophosphorylation activities to that of a truncated version of the protein (His-t-RaxH), lacking the N-terminal transmembrane region. Transphosphorylation assays revealed that only full-length RaxH was able to induce phosphorylation of His-RaxR, indicating that the N-terminal region of RaxH may be required for transphosphorylation of RaxR. Using site-directed mutagenesis we also demonstrated that residues histidine 222 in RaxH and aspartate 51 in RaxR are essential for phosphorylation activities of these proteins. Utilization of compatible solutes may be widely applied for purification of soluble, active recombinant transmembrane proteins, and in particular for purification of transmembrane HKs.  相似文献
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