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1.
In recent years two different styles of model for homologous recombination have been discussed, depending on whether or not the recombination event occurs in the vicinity of a double-strand break in DNA. The models of Holliday and Meselson and Radding exemplify those that do not involve a break whereas the model of Szostak et al is taken as an example of those that do. Recent advances in understanding a prototypic recombination system thought to promote exchange distant from DNA ends, at Chi sites, suggest a mechanism of initiation neither like Holliday/Meselson-Radding nor like Szostak et al. In those models, only one strand of DNA may invade a homologous DNA molecule. We propose a model for Chi in which exonuclease degrades DNA from a double-strand break to the Chi site; the exonuclease is converted into a helicase upon interaction with Chi; unwinding produces a recombinagenic split-end, and both 3'- and 5'-ending strands at the split-end are capable of invading a homologue. Different genetic consequences are proposed to result from invasion by each. We review evidence supporting the split-end model and suggest its application in at least some cases previously considered to proceed via the Meselson/Radding model and by the double-strand-break repair model of Szostak et al.  相似文献
2.
The HNPP (hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) deletion and CMT1A (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A) duplication are the reciprocal products of homologous recombination events between misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP repeats on chromosome 17p11. 2-p12. A 1.7-kb hotspot for homologous recombination was previously identified wherein the relative risk of an exchange event is 50 times higher than in the surrounding 98.7% identical sequence shared by the CMT1A-REPs. To refine the region of exchange further, we designed a PCR strategy to amplify the recombinant CMT1A-REP from HNPP patients as well as the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs from control individuals. By comparing the sequences across recombinant CMT1A-REPs to that of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs, the exchange was mapped to a 557-bp region within the previously identified 1.7-kb hotspot in 21 of 23 unrelated HNPP deletion patients. Two patients had recombined sequences suggesting an exchange event closer to the mariner-like element previously identified near the hotspot. Five individuals also had interspersed patches of proximal or distal repeat specific DNA sequence indicating potential gene conversion during the exchange of genetic material. Our studies provide a direct observation of human meiotic recombination products. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that minimum efficient processing segments, which have been characterized in Escherichia coli, yeast, and cultured mammalian cells, may be required for efficient homologous meiotic recombination in humans.  相似文献
3.
Analysis of the Mechanism for Reversion of a Disrupted Gene   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
A positive selection system for intrachromosomal recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed. This was achieved by integration of a plasmid containing an internal fragment of the HIS3 gene into its chromosomal location. This resulted in two copies of the HIS3 gene one with a terminal deletion at the 3' end and the other with a terminal deletion at the 5' end. Reversion of the gene disruption could be brought about by plasmid excision, unequal sister chromatid exchange or sister chromatid conversion. The purpose of this study was to define the mechanisms involved in reversion of the gene disruption. The frequency of plasmid excision could be determined by placing a yeast sequence bearing an origin of replication onto the plasmid that was subsequently integrated into the yeast genome. Unequal sister chromatid exchange and conversion could be distinguished by determining the nature of the reciprocal product by Southern blotting. The results indicate that reversion might occur mainly by conversion between sister chromatids. This is because the frequency of plasmid excision was about two orders of magnitude lower than the overall frequency of reversion and no reciprocal product indicative of sister chromatid exchange was found. The findings of this presentation suggest that conversion might be an important mechanism for recombination of sister chromatids and possibly for repair of damaged DNA in S or G2.  相似文献
4.
Ends-in Vs. Ends-Out Recombination in Yeast   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
Integration of linearized plasmids into yeast chromosomes has been used as a model system for the study of recombination initiated by double-strand breaks. The linearized plasmid DNA recombines efficiently into sequences homologous to the ends of the DNA. This efficient recombination occurs both for the configuration in which the break is in a contiguous region of homology (herein called the ends-in configuration) and for ``omega' insertions in which plasmid sequences interrupt a linear region of homology (herein called the ends-out configuration). The requirements for integration of these two configurations are expected to be different. We compared these two processes in a yeast strain containing an ends-in target and an ends-out target for the same cut plasmid. Recovery of ends-in events exceeds ends-out events by two- to threefold. Possible causes for the origin of this small bias are discussed. The lack of an extreme difference in frequency implies that cooperativity between the two ends does not contribute to the efficiency with which cut circular plasmids are integrated. This may also be true for the repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks.  相似文献
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6.
Spontaneous secondary mutations of the ochre suppressor SUP6 were selected in a haploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Unselected tetrads were dissected from crosses heterozygous for one of three alleles of SUP6 and for three other loci in this region which span a length of 14 map units (his2, cdc14 and met10). The study showed that all of these markers were characterized by high frequency of meiotic gene conversion and long conversion lengths which frequently extended into adjacent marked loci. Despite the high conversion frequency of SUP6 , recombination between alleles of this locus reached a maximum frequency of only 2 x 10-3 prototrophs/spore. Although the allelic recombination frequencies were not distance dependent and consequently could not be used to order the alleles, the inequality between the two recombinant outside marker combinations among selected intragenic recombinants produced an internally consistent map of the suppressor locus. Recombination at SUP6 (whether detected as conversion in tetrads or the production of recombinants among random spores) was accompanied by significantly less than 50% outside marker recombination.  相似文献
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8.
Deletion of an integrated plasmid, a specific type of intrachromosomal recombination, was evaluated for inducibility with the phenylpropenes safrole, eugenol and methyleugenol in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These phenylpropenes are found in food products, spices, pharmaceuticals and clove cigarettes. Safrole and eugenol are known carcinogens in animals and methyleugenol is a suspected carcinogen. These phenylpropenes are not detectable by the Ames assay and most other short-term tests used currently in predictive carcinogenesis. Like safrole, which has been shown to be nonmutagenic with the Ames assay, eugenol and methyleugenol were found to be nonmutagenic with the Ames assay. In contrast, with the yeast assays which screen for intra- and inter-chromosomal recombination in logarithmic phase cultures, all 3 compounds gave a positive dose-related response. These results demonstrate further that the yeast system can be modified easily to detect various genetic endpoints and that it deserves serious consideration as a test system for predictive carcinogenesis.  相似文献
9.
10.
The repair of gamma-ray induced DNA single and double-strand breaks was looked at in wild type and rad18-2 strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using sucrose gradient centrifugation. It was found that rad18-2 diploid cells could repair single and double-strand breaks induced by gamma-rays. It was also found that rad18-2 cells experienced a breakup of their DNA during post-irradiation incubation to a size smaller than seen in cells just receiving irradiation. This breakup of DNA in rad18-2 cells is not degradation due to cell death since wild type cells irradiated to similar low survival levels do not show this breakup of DNA with 8 h incubation. The breakup of DNA in rad18-2 cells is not due to replication gaps being formed by synthesis on a damaged template since treatment of rad18-2 a mating type cells with alpha factor, to prevent initiation of DNA synthesis, does not prevent breakup of the DNA.  相似文献
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