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Δ5,7 Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing in chemostat at a specific growth rate of 0.075/h exhibited higher ethanol tolerance measured as ethanol-induced death and anaerobic growth inhibition than the cells growing at 0.2/h, the difference being dependent on the carbon-to-nitrogen molar proportion in the medium. The observed difference in sensitivity to ethanol of anaerobic growth between the slowly and rapidly-growing cells was completely reversed as a result of a block in sterol synthesis causing a negligible synthesis of Δ5,7. Two physiological parameters, budding frequency and membrane composition, evidently affected ethanol tolerance. Differences between the Δ5,7 and deficient strains documented a profound effect of the quality of the sterol present on the physiological state of the cell.  相似文献
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As intensive farmlands cover increasing areas of the world, associated biotic richness is crucial for the biodiversity of entire regions. Using data on non‐target Macrolepidopteran moths captured by a crop pest monitoring system, we compared local (100 m perimeter)‐ and landscape‐scale (1000 m perimeter) predictors of the numbers of moth individuals and moth species richness. During a single year (2009), eighteen light traps captured 91 726 individuals of 564 moths species. Typically for biotically impoverished habitats, the catches were dominated by a few superabundant species. Even in these impoverished assemblages, numbers of species increased with increasing herb and woody plants diversity (100 m around the traps), crop diversity (1000 m perimeter), landscape composition (1000 m) and configuration (100 and 1000 m). Abundance of the catches increased only with woody plants diversity in 100 m perimeters. In separate analyses of two species‐rich families, the presumably less mobile Geometridae increased with landscape configuration (i.e. density of edges) within 100 m perimeters around the traps, whereas the species richness of more mobile Noctuidae also reflected the landscape composition (i.e. proportional representation of land covers) at 100 m perimeters. Proportional representation of pest species decreased with increasing richness of herb and woody plants. Taken together, farmland heterogeneity increases moth species richness, whereas abundance of the catches mainly depends on local factors in the vicinity of light traps, and the local factors are more important for presumably less mobile Geometridae than for more mobile Noctuidae.  相似文献
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