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1.
Monocytes/macrophages exposed to LPS show reduced responses to second stimulation with LPS, which is termed LPS tolerance. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanism of LPS tolerance in macrophages. Mouse peritoneal macrophages pre-exposed to LPS exhibited reduced production of inflammatory cytokines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Activation of neither IL-1 receptor-associated kinase nor NF-kappaB was observed in macrophages that became tolerant by LPS pretreatment, indicating that the proximal event in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MyD88-dependent signaling is affected in tolerant macrophages. Although TLR4 mRNA expression significantly decreased within a few hours of LPS pretreatment and returned to the original level at 24 h, the surface TLR4 expression began to decrease within 1 h, with a gradual decrease after that, and remained suppressed over 24 h. A decrease in inflammatory cytokine production in tolerant macrophages well correlates with down-regulation of the surface TLR4 expression, which may explain one of the mechanisms for LPS tolerance.  相似文献
2.
A family of Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediates the cellular response to bacterial cell wall components; murine TLR2 and TLR4 recognize mycoplasmal lipopeptides (macrophage-activating lipopeptides, 2 kDa (MALP-2)) and LPS, respectively. Costimulation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with MALP-2 and LPS results in a marked increase in TNF-alpha production, showing the synergy between TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways. Macrophages pretreated with LPS show hyporesponsiveness to the second LPS stimulation, termed LPS tolerance. The LPS tolerance has recently been shown to be primarily due to the down-regulation of surface expression of the TLR4-MD2 complex. When macrophages were treated with MALP-2, the cells showed hyporesponsiveness to the second MALP-2 stimulation, like LPS tolerance. Furthermore, macrophages pretreated with MALP-2 showed reduced production of TNF-alpha in response to LPS. LPS-induced activation of both NF-kappaB and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase was severely impaired in MALP-2-pretreated cells. However, MALP-2-pretreated macrophages did not show any reduction in surface expression of the TLR4-MD2 complex. These findings indicate that LPS-induced LPS tolerance mainly occurs through the down-regulation of surface expression of the TLR4-MD2 complex; in contrast, MALP-2-induced LPS tolerance is due to modulation of the downstream cytoplasmic signaling pathways.  相似文献
3.
To study regulatory mechanisms influencing the synthesis and release of ET-1, a potent bronchoconstrictor, epithelial cells from guinea pig tracheas were cultured to test various cytokines for the synthesis of ET-1 and its precursor, big ET-1. Cytokines tested were divided into 4 groups, based on their potential modes of action. IL-8, TNF alpha and TGF beta transiently increased the synthesis of ET-1, while EGF, PDGF and GM/CSF promoted proliferation of ET-1 synthesizing cells. IL-1 enhanced the synthesis of ET-1 precursor without mitogenesis, whereas IL-2, IL-6 and IGF-1 induced both the synthesis of big ET-1 and mitogenesis. These observations suggest that cytokines involved in damage, inflammation and repair of the airway epithelial layer regulate the synthesis and release of ET-1 by multiple mechanisms, thereby influencing airway muscle tone.  相似文献
4.
Polyurethane (PUR) is a polymer derived from the condensation of polyisocyanate and polyol and it is widely used as a base material in various industries. PUR, in particular, polyester PUR, is known to be vulnerable to microbial attack. Recently, environmental pollution by plastic wastes has become a serious issue and polyester PUR had attracted attention because of its biodegradability. There are many reports on the degradation of polyester PUR by microorganisms, especially by fungi. Microbial degradation of polyester PUR is thought to be mainly due to the hydrolysis of ester bonds by esterases. Recently, polyester-PUR-degrading enzymes have been purified and their characteristics reported. Among them, a solid-polyester-PUR-degrading enzyme (PUR esterase) derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35 had unique characteristics. This enzyme has a hydrophobic PUR-surface-binding domain and a catalytic domain, and the surface-binding domain was considered as being essential for PUR degradation. This hydrophobic surface-binding domain is also observed in other solid-polyester-degrading enzymes such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) depolymerases. There was no significant homology between the amino acid sequence of PUR esterase and that of PHA depolymerases, except in the hydrophobic surface-binding region. Thus, PUR esterase and PHA depolymerase are probably different in terms of their evolutionary origin and it is possible that PUR esterases come to be classified as a new solid-polyester-degrading enzyme family. Received: 20 July 1998 / Received revision: 9 October 1998 / Accepted: 11 October 1998  相似文献
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6.
We investigated the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms as well as prostaglandin E receptor EP subtypes responsible for acid-induced gastric HCO(3)(-) secretion in rats and EP receptor-knockout (-/-) mice. Under urethane anesthesia, a chambered stomach (in the presence of omeprazole) was perfused with saline, and HCO(3)(-) secretion was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method and by adding 2 mM HCl. Mucosal acidification was achieved by exposing the stomach for 10 min to 50 or 100 mM HCl. Acidification of the mucosa increased the secretion of HCO(3)(-) in the stomach of both rats and WT mice, in an indomethacin-inhibitable manner. The acid-induced gastric HCO(3)(-) secretion was inhibited by prior administration of indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib in rats and mice. Acidification increased the PGE(2) content of the rat stomach, and this response was significantly attenuated by indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib. This response was also attenuated by ONO-8711 (EP1 antagonist) but not AE3-208 (EP4 antagonist) in rats and disappeared in EP1 (-/-) but not EP3 (-/-) mice. PGE(2) increased gastric HCO(3)(-) secretion in both rats and WT mice, and this action was inhibited by ONO-8711 and disappeared in EP1 (-/-) but not EP3 (-/-) mice. These results support a mediator role for endogenous PGs in the gastric response induced by mucosal acidification and clearly indicate that the enzyme responsible for production of PGs in this process is COX-1. They further show that the presence of EP1 receptors is essential for the increase in the secretion of HCO(3)(-) in response to mucosal acidification in the stomach.  相似文献
7.
Takekoshi K  Ishii K  Isobe K  Nomura F  Nammoku T  Nakai T 《Life sciences》2000,66(22):PL303-PL311
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) are present in adrenal chromaffin cells, and are co-secreted with catecholamines suggesting that these natriuretic peptides (NPs) may modulate functions of chromaffin cells in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner. Therefore, we investigated the effects of NPs on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH: a rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of catecholamine) mRNA in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. It was also determined whether the cyclic GMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP/PKG) pathway was involved in theses effects. Finally, we examined the effects of NPs on intracellular catecholamine content to confirm increase of catecholamine synthesis following TH mRNA induction. NPs (0.1 microM) induced significant increases of the TH mRNA (ANP= BNP> CNP). Also, the effects of NPs on TH mRNA were mimicked by 8-bromo cyclic GMP (1mM), and were blocked by KT5823 (1 microM) (inhibitor PKG) or LY83583 (1 microM) (guanylate cyclase inhibitor). Moreover, NPs were shown to induce significant increases of intracellular catecholamine contents (ANP= BNP> CNP). These findings suggest that NPs induced increases of TH mRNA through cGMP/PKG dependent mechanisms, which, in turn, resulted in stimulation of catecholamine synthesis in PC12 cells.  相似文献
8.
It is important to clarify the molecular mechanisms of physiological responses of the human body to changes in gravity. Previous reports demonstrated that gravity-changing stress increases the human urinary concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). However, it has yet to be clarified whether repetitive parabolic flight modulates the urinary concentration of 8-OHdG after exposure to gravity-changing stress. In the present study, the effects of the number of previous experiences with parabolic flight on urinary excretion of 8-OHdG and concentration of serum ACTH were examined in 12 healthy volunteers.  相似文献
9.
Liposomes are micro-compartments made of lipid bilayer membranes possessing the characteristics quite similar to those of biological membranes. To form artificial cell-like structures, we made liposomes that contained subunit proteins of cytoskeletons: tubulin or actin. Spherical liposomes were transformed into bipolar or cell-like shapes by mechanical forces generated by the polymerization of encapsulated subunits of microtubules. On the other hand, disk- or dumbbell-shaped liposomes were developed by the polymerization of encapsulated actin. Dynamic processes of morphological transformations of liposomes were visualized by high intensity dark-field light microscopy. Topological changes, such as fusion and division of membrane vesicles, play an essential role in cellular activities. To investigate the mechanism of these processes, we visualized the liposomes undergoing topological transformation in real time. A variety of novel topological transformations were found, including the opening-up of liposomes and the direct expulsion of inner vesicles.  相似文献
10.
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