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1.
X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-3, -7, and -9. Smac/DIABLO, an inhibitor of XIAP, is released from mitochondria upon receiving apoptotic stimuli and binds to the BIR2 and BIR3 domains of XIAP, thereby inhibiting its caspase-inhibitory activity. Here we report that a serine protease called HtrA2/Omi is released from mitochondria and inhibits the function of XIAP by direct binding in a similar way to Smac. Moreover, when overexpressed extramitochondrially, HtrA2 induces atypical cell death, which is neither accompanied by a significant increase in caspase activity nor inhibited by caspase inhibitors, including XIAP. A catalytically inactive mutant of HtrA2, however, does not induce cell death. In short, HtrA2 is a Smac-like inhibitor of IAP activity with a serine protease-dependent cell death-inducing activity.  相似文献
2.
Bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) were used for the identification of cyanobacterial DNA. Genus-specific oligonucleotide probes for the detection of Anabaena spp., Microcystis spp., Nostoc spp., Oscillatoria spp., and Synechococcus spp. were designed from the variable region of the cyanobacterial 16S rDNA of 148 strains. These oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on BMPs via streptavidin-biotin conjugation and employed for magnetic-capture hybridization against digoxigenin-labeled cyanobacterial 16S rDNA. Bacterial magnetic particles were magnetically concentrated, spotted in 100-microm-size microwell on MAG-microarray, and the fluorescent detection was performed. This work details the development of an automated technique for the magnetic isolation, the concentration of hybridized DNA, and the detection of specific target DNA on MAG-microarray. The entire process of hybridization and detection was automatically performed using a magnetic-separation robot and all five cyanobacterial genera were successfully discriminated.  相似文献
3.
Interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGE) with AGE receptors induces several cellular phenomena potentially relating to diabetic complications. Five AGE receptors identified so far are RAGE (receptor for AGE), galectin-3, 80K-H, OST-48, and SRA (macrophage scavenger receptor class A types I and II). Since SRA is known to belong to the class A scavenger receptor family, and the scavenger receptor collectively represents a family of multiligand lipoprotein receptors, it is possible that CD36, although belonging to the class B scavenger receptor family, can recognize AGE proteins as ligands. This was tested at the cellular level in this study using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing human CD36 (CD36-CHO cells). Cellular expression of CD36 was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescent microscopy using anti-CD36 antibody. Upon incubation at 37 degrees C, (125)I-AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) and (125)I-oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), an authentic ligand for CD36, were endocytosed in a dose-dependent fashion and underwent lysosomal degradation by CD36-CHO cells, but not wild-type CHO cells. In binding experiments at 4 degrees C, (125)I-AGE-BSA exhibited specific and saturable binding to CD36-CHO cells (K(d) = 5.6 microg/ml). The endocytic uptake of (125)I-AGE-BSA by these cells was inhibited by 50% by oxidized LDL and by 60% by FA6-152, an anti-CD36 antibody inhibiting cellular binding of oxidized LDL. Our results indicate that CD36 expressed by these cells mediates the endocytic uptake and subsequent intracellular degradation of AGE proteins. Since CD36 is one of the major oxidized LDL receptors and is up-regulated in macrophage- and smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells in human atherosclerotic lesions, these results suggest that, like oxidized LDL, AGE proteins generated in situ are recognized by CD36, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic macrovascular complications.  相似文献
4.
Apparent plasmid instability, i.e. progressive plasmid loss in a bacterial culture growing in the absence of selection for the plasmid, in an Escherichia coli recBC sbcBC mutant was investigated with two different ColE1 derivatives (pMB9 and pBR322) and a mini-F plasmid. The instability was most striking for pMB9 and much less, but still significant, for pBR322 and the mini-F. It was also dependent upon a subset of the genes involved in the RecF recombination pathway: in addition to the previously reported recA, recF and recJ mutations, a recO and a recQ mutation showed a total and a partial suppression, respectively, of the instability. Other recF-family mutations, recN and ruv, were without such an effect. Population analyses of the recBC sbcBC strain carrying pMB9 or the mini-F, as carried out by plating and Coulter counting, revealed marked loss of viability in plasmid-carrying cells, strongly implicating plasmid-mediated cell death in the apparent defect in plasmid maintenance. Analysis of intracellular plasmid DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with the in-agarose cell lysis technique showed that the instability was associated with the formation of plasmid multimers, with a good correlation between the degree of the instability and the amount of the multimers. The multimer formation was also dependent on the same subset of the RecF pathway genes as in the instability phenomenon. These results strongly suggest that the lethality is somehow caused by the multimer formation. Various DNase treatments of cell lysates showed that such multimers of pMB9 DNA comprised molecules of exonuclease-sensitive and exonuclease-resistant types. It was inferred that the former class, which showed electrophoretic mobilities corresponding to plain linear duplexes of approximately 200 x 10(3) to 2200 x 10(3) base-pairs, represented linear multimers possibly carrying circular structures at one end. The latter class, which remained in the origin, was thought to consist of circular multimers and/or linear multimers protected by circular structures at both ends against exonucleolytic attack.  相似文献
5.
By using a photoactivatable analog of 11-cis-retinal in rhodopsin, we have previously identified the amino acids Phe-115, Ala-117, Glu-122, Trp-126, Ser-127, and Trp-265 as major sites of cross-linking to the chromophore. To further investigate the amino acids that interact with retinal, we have now used site-directed mutagenesis to replace a variety of amino acids in the membrane-embedded helices in bovine rhodopsin, including those that were indicated by cross-linking studies. The mutant rhodopsin genes were expressed in monkey kidney cells (COS-1) and purified. The mutant proteins were studied for their spectroscopic properties and their ability to activate transducin. Substitution of the two amino acids, Trp-265 and Glu-122 by Tyr, Phe, and Ala and by Gln, Asp and Ala, respectively, resulted in blue-shifted (20-30 nm) chromophore, and substitution of Trp-265 by Ala resulted in marked reduction in the extent of chromophore regeneration. Light-dependent bleaching behavior was significantly altered in Ala-117----Phe, Trp-265----Phe, Ala, and Ala-292----Asp mutants. Transducin activation was reduced in these mutants, in particular Trp-265 mutants, as well as in Glu-122----Gln, Trp-126----Leu (Ala), Pro-267----Ala (Asn, Ser), and Tyr-268----Phe mutants. These findings indicate that Trp-265 is located close to retinal and Glu-122, Trp-126, and probably Tyr-268 are also likely to be near retinal.  相似文献
6.
7.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induced morphologic changes such as chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage in a feline fibroblastic cell line (CRFK) chronically infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) but not in uninfected CRFK cells. DNA extracted from TNF-alpha-treated CRFK cells infected with FIV showed a ladder of nucleosomal DNA, indicating that this cytocidal effect by TNF-alpha was due to programmed cell death, or apoptosis. These findings may have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of FIV infection and for the design of specific therapeutic strategies for AIDS in humans as well as cats.  相似文献
8.
A DNA fragment carrying the insecticidal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai IPL7 was cloned from a 78-kb plasmid. The nucleotide sequence revealed that the cloned DNA fragment contained a 3465-bp protein-coding region with 156-bp 5'-flanking, and 168-bp 3'-flanking regions. The open reading frame encoded a 130,690 Da protein consisting of 1155 amino acid residues. Nucleotide sequence comparison of the aizawai gene with the published berliner 1715 gene showed only 8 nt changes in the coding regions. It was found that 72 bp of the 5'-flanking sequence of the cloned aizawai gene was responsible for constitutive expression of the 130-kDa protein gene in Escherichia coli. The expression was greatly enhanced by introducing the tac promoter upstream from the 72-bp 5'-flanking region of the aizawai gene. Under optimal conditions, the 130-kDa insecticidal protein amounted to 38% of the total cellular protein.  相似文献
9.
cDNA clones coding for rat liver ribosomal proteins S17 and L30 have been isolated by positive hybridization-translation assay from a cDNA library prepared from 8-9S poly(A)+RNA from free polysomes of regenerating rat liver. The cDNA clone specific for S17 protein (pRS17-2) has a 466-bp insert with the poly(A) tail. The complete amino acid (aa) sequence of S17 protein was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA. S17 protein consists of 134 aa residues with an Mr of 15 377. The N-terminal aa sequence of S17 protein determined by automatic Edman degradation is consistent with the sequence data. The aa sequence of S17 shows strong homology (76.9%) to that of yeast ribosomal protein 51 [Teem and Rosbash, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80 (1983) 4403-4407] in the two-thirds N-terminal region. The cDNA clone specific for L30 protein (pRL30) has a 394-bp insert. The aa sequence of L30 protein was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA. The protein consists of 114 aa residues with an Mr of 12 652. When compared with the N-terminal aa sequence of rat liver L30 protein [Wool, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 48 (1979) 719-754], pRL30 was found not to contain the initiation codon and 5'-noncoding region. The cDNA showed twelve silent changes in the coding region, one point mutation and one base deletion in the 3'-noncoding region, compared with mouse genomic DNA for L30 protein [Wiedemann and Perry, Mol. Cell Biol. 4 (1984) 2518-2528].  相似文献
10.
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